Methods for therapeutic renal neuromodulation

Abstract

Methods and apparatus are provided for treating hypertension, e.g., via a pulsed electric field, via a stimulation electric field, via localized drug delivery, via high frequency ultrasound, via thermal techniques, etc. Such neuromodulation may effectuate irreversible electroporation or electrofusion, necrosis and/or inducement of apoptosis, alteration of gene expression, action potential attenuation or blockade, changes in cytokine up-regulation and other conditions in target neural fibers. In some embodiments, neuromodulation is applied to neural fibers that contribute to renal function. In some embodiments, such neuromodulation is performed in a bilateral fashion. Bilateral renal neuromodulation may provide enhanced therapeutic effect in some patients as compared to renal neuromodulation performed unilaterally, i.e., as compared to renal neuromodulation performed on neural tissue innervating a single kidney.

Claims

We claim: 1. A method for treating a human patient with a diagnosed condition or disease associated with cardio-renal function, the method comprising: positioning a nerve modulation device within renal vasculature of the patient and in the vicinity of post-ganglionic neural fibers that innervate a kidney of the patient; and reducing neural communication to and from the kidney by at least partially ablating the neural fibers of the patient via the nerve modulation device, wherein the kidney continues to secrete renin in the patient after reducing neural communication with the nerve modulation device, wherein reducing neural communication to and from the kidney results in improved cardio-renal function of the patient. 2. The method of claim 1 wherein positioning a nerve modulation device within renal vasculature comprises positioning the nerve modulation device within a renal artery of the patient. 3. The method of claim 1 wherein reducing neural communication to and from the kidney by at least partially ablating the neural fibers comprises heating afferent and efferent renal nerves of the patient with RF energy delivered via the nerve modulation device. 4. A method for treating a human patient with diagnosed hypertension, the method comprising: positioning a nerve modulation device within a renal blood vessel of the patient and in the vicinity of post-ganglionic neural fibers that innervate a kidney of the patient; and directing a neuromodulatory energy from the nerve modulation device to the post-ganglionic neural fibers to reduce neural communication to and from the kidney, wherein the reduction in neural communication to and from the kidney significantly improves a measureable physiological parameter associated with the hypertension of the patient, wherein the kidney continues to secrete renin in the patient after the reduction in neural communication with the nerve modulation device. 5. The method of claim 4 wherein positioning a nerve modulation device within a renal blood vessel of the patient comprises positioning the nerve modulation device within a renal artery of the patient. 6. A method for treatment of a human patient via renal denervation, the method comprising: positioning a renal denervation catheter having a treatment device within a renal artery of the patient and in the vicinity of post-ganglionic neural fibers that innervate a kidney of the patient; and directing a neuromodulatory energy from the treatment device to the post-ganglionic neural fibers to reduce neural communication to and from the kidney, wherein the reduction in neural communication to and from the kidney results in a therapeutically beneficial reduction in blood pressure of the patient. 7. The method of claim 6 wherein the neuromodulatory energy comprises RF energy. 8. A method for catheter-based renal neuromodulation, the method comprising: positioning a catheter having a therapeutic element within a renal artery of a human patient; directing a neuromodulatory energy from the therapeutic element to a post-ganglionic neural fiber to attenuate neural traffic to and/or from a kidney of the patient, wherein the attenuation of neural traffic therapeutically treats a diagnosed condition or disease associated with cardio-renal function of the patient; and removing the catheter from the patient after the attenuation of neural traffic to and/or from the kidney. 9. The method of claim 8 wherein the post-ganglionic neural fiber comprises a renal nerve adjacent the renal artery. 10. The method of claim 9 wherein directing the neuromodulatory energy from the therapeutic element to the post-ganglionic neural fiber comprises partially ablating the renal nerve. 11. The method of claim 9 wherein directing the neuromodulatory energy from the therapeutic element to the post-ganglionic neural fiber comprises ablating the renal nerve. 12. The method of claim 8 wherein the neuromodulatory energy comprises RF energy. 13. The method of claim 8 wherein: positioning a catheter having a therapeutic element within a renal artery of a human patient comprises positioning the catheter in a patient diagnosed with hypertension; and wherein directing a neuromodulatory energy from the therapeutic element to a post-ganglionic neural fiber to attenuate the neural traffic to and/or from the kidney results in a therapeutically beneficial reduction in blood pressure of the patient. 14. A method for treating a human patient with a diagnosed condition or disease associated with cardio-renal function, the method comprising: delivering an energy element to an intravascular location within a renal artery of the patient and adjacent to post-ganglionic neural fibers innervating a kidney of the patient; and partially ablating the neural fibers of the patient via energy from the energy element, wherein partially ablating the neural fibers results in a therapeutically beneficial reduction in blood pressure of the patient. 15. A method for treating a human patient with diagnosed hypertension, the method comprising: positioning a nerve modulation device within a renal blood vessel of the patient and in the vicinity of post-ganglionic neural fibers that innervate a kidney of the patient; and directing one or more neuromodulatory agents or drugs from the nerve modulation device to the post-ganglionic neural fibers to reduce neural communication to and from the kidney, wherein the reduction in neural communication to and from the kidney significantly improves a measureable physiological parameter associated with the hypertension of the patient, wherein the kidney continues to secrete renin in the patient after the reduction in neural communication with the nerve modulation device. 16. The method of claim 15 wherein positioning a nerve modulation device within a renal blood vessel of the patient comprises positioning the nerve modulation device within a renal artery of the patient. 17. A method for treatment of a human patient via renal denervation, the method comprising: positioning a renal denervation catheter having a treatment device within a renal artery of the patient and in the vicinity of post-ganglionic neural fibers that innervate a kidney of the patient; and directing one or more neuromodulatory agents or drugs from the treatment device to the post-ganglionic neural fibers to reduce neural communication to and from the kidney, wherein the reduction in neural communication to and from the kidney results in a therapeutically beneficial reduction in blood pressure of the patient. 18. A method for catheter-based renal neuromodulation, the method comprising: positioning a catheter having a therapeutic element within a renal artery of a human patient; directing one or more neuromodulatory agents or drugs from the therapeutic element to a post-ganglionic neural fiber to attenuate neural traffic to and/or from a kidney of the patient, wherein the attenuation of neural traffic therapeutically treats a diagnosed condition or disease associated with cardio-renal function of the patient; and removing the catheter from the patient after attenuating neural traffic to and/or from the kidney. 19. The method of claim 18 wherein the post-ganglionic neural fiber comprises a renal nerve adjacent the renal artery. 20. The method of claim 19 wherein directing one or more neuromodulatory agents or drugs from the therapeutic element to the post-ganglionic neural fiber comprises partially ablating the renal nerve. 21. The method of claim 19 wherein directing one or more neuromodulatory agents or drugs from the therapeutic element to the post-ganglionic neural fiber comprises ablating the renal nerve. 22. The method of claim 18 wherein: positioning a catheter having a therapeutic element within a renal artery of a human patient comprises positioning the catheter in a patient diagnosed with hypertension; and wherein directing one or more neuromodulatory agents or drugs from the therapeutic element to a post-ganglionic neural fiber to attenuate the neural traffic to and/or from the kidney results in a therapeutically beneficial reduction in blood pressure of the patient.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS The present application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/549,229, filed Nov. 20, 2014, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/285,217, filed May 22, 2014, now abandoned, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/361,620, filed on Jan. 30, 2012, now abandoned, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/368,577, filed on Mar. 6, 2006, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,145,317, which is a continuation-in-part of each of the following United States patent applications: (1) U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/408,665, filed on Apr. 8, 2003, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,162,303, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/442,970, filed on Jan. 29, 2003; 60/415,575, filed on Oct. 3, 2002; and 60/370,190, filed on Apr. 8, 2002. (2) U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/133,925, filed on May 20, 2005, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,771,252, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/900,199, filed on Jul. 28, 2004, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,978,174, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/408,665, filed on Apr. 8, 2003, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,162,303. (3) U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/189,563, filed on Jul. 25, 2005, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,145,316, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/129,765, filed on May 13, 2005, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,653,438, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/616,254, filed on Oct. 5, 2004; and 60/624,793, filed on Nov. 2, 2004. (4) U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/266,993, filed on Nov. 4, 2005, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,756,583. (5) U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/363,867, filed on Feb. 27, 2006, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,620,451, which (a) claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/813,589, filed on Dec. 29, 2005, and (b) is a continuation-in-part of each of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/189,563, filed on Jul. 25, 2005, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,145,316, and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/266,993, filed on Nov. 4, 2005, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,756,583. All of the foregoing applications, publication and patent are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties. INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE All publications and patent applications mentioned in this specification are herein incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference. TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for neuromodulation. In some embodiments, the present invention relates to methods and apparatus for achieving bilateral renal neuromodulation. BACKGROUND Congestive Heart Failure (“CHF”) is a condition that occurs when the heart becomes damaged and reduces blood flow to the organs of the body. If blood flow decreases sufficiently, kidney function becomes altered, which results in fluid retention, abnormal hormone secretions and increased constriction of blood vessels. These results increase the workload of the heart and further decrease the capacity of the heart to pump blood through the kidneys and circulatory system. It is believed that progressively decreasing perfusion of the kidneys is a principal non-cardiac cause perpetuating the downward spiral of CHF. Moreover, the fluid overload and associated clinical symptoms resulting from these physiologic changes result in additional hospital admissions, poor quality of life and additional costs to the health care system. In addition to their role in the progression of CHF, the kidneys play a significant role in the progression of Chronic Renal Failure (“CRF”), End-Stage Renal Disease (“ESRD”), hypertension (pathologically high blood pressure) and other cardio-renal diseases. The functions of the kidneys can be summarized under three broad categories: filtering blood and excreting waste products generated by the body's metabolism; regulating salt, water, electrolyte and acid-base balance; and secreting hormones to maintain vital organ blood flow. Without properly functioning kidneys, a patient will suffer water retention, reduced urine flow and an accumulation of waste toxins in the blood and body. These conditions result from reduced renal function or renal failure (kidney failure) and are believed to increase the workload of the heart. In a CHF patient, renal failure will cause the heart to further deteriorate as fluids are retained and blood toxins accumulate due to the poorly functioning kidneys. It has been established in animal models that the heart failure condition results in abnormally high sympathetic activation of the kidneys. An increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity leads to decreased removal of water and sodium from the body, as well as increased renin secretion. Increased renin secretion leads to vasoconstriction of blood vessels supplying the kidneys which causes decreased renal blood flow. Reduction of sympathetic renal nerve activity, e.g., via denervation, may reverse these processes. Applicants have previously described methods and apparatus for treating renal disorders by applying a pulsed electric field to neural fibers that contribute to renal function. See, for example, Applicants' co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/129,765, filed on May 13, 2005, and Ser. No. 11/189,563, filed on Jul. 25, 2005, both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties. A pulsed electric field (“PEF”) may initiate renal neuromodulation, e.g., denervation, for example, via irreversible electroporation or via electrofusion. The PEF may be delivered from apparatus positioned intravascularly, extravascularly, intra-to-extravascularly or a combination thereof. Additional methods and apparatus for achieving renal neuromodulation, e.g., via localized drug delivery (such as by a drug pump or infusion catheter) or via use of a stimulation electric field, etc, are described, for example, in co-owned and co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/408,665, filed Apr. 8, 2003, and U.S. Pat. No. 6,978,174, both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties. As used herein, electrofusion comprises fusion of neighboring cells induced by exposure to an electric field. Contact between target neighboring cells for the purposes of electrofusion may be achieved in a variety of ways, including, for example, via dielectrophoresis. In tissue, the target cells may already be in contact, thus facilitating electrofusion. As used herein, electroporation and electropermeabilization are methods of manipulating the cell membrane or intracellular apparatus. For example, the porosity of a cell membrane may be increased by inducing a sufficient voltage across the cell membrane through, e.g., short, high-voltage pulses. The extent of porosity in the cell membrane (e.g., size and number of pores) and the duration of effect (e.g., temporary or permanent) are a function of multiple variables, such as field strength, pulse width, duty cycle, electric field orientation, cell type or size and/or other parameters. Cell membrane pores will generally close spontaneously upon termination of relatively lower strength electric fields or relatively shorter pulse widths (herein defined as “reversible electroporation”). However, each cell or cell type has a critical threshold above which pores do not close such that pore formation is no longer reversible; this result is defined as “irreversible electroporation,” “irreversible breakdown” or “irreversible damage.” At this point, the cell membrane ruptures and/or irreversible chemical imbalances caused by the high porosity occur. Such high porosity can be the result of a single large hole and/or a plurality of smaller holes. A potential challenge of using intravascular PEF systems for treating renal disorders is to selectively electroporate target cells without affecting other cells. For example, it may be desirable to irreversibly electroporate renal nerve cells that travel along or in proximity to renal vasculature, but it may not be desirable to damage the smooth muscle cells of which the vasculature is composed. As a result, an overly aggressive course of PEF therapy may persistently injure the renal vasculature, but an overly conservative course of PEF therapy may not achieve the desired renal neuromodulation. Applicants have previously described methods and apparatus for monitoring tissue impedance or conductivity to determine the effects of pulsed electric field therapy, e.g., to determine an extent of electroporation and/or its degree of irreversibility. See, for example, Applicant's co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/233,814, filed Sep. 23, 2005, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Pulsed electric field electroporation of tissue causes a decrease in tissue impedance and an increase in tissue conductivity. If induced electroporation is reversible, tissue impedance and conductivity should approximate baseline levels upon cessation of the pulsed electric field. However, if electroporation is irreversible, impedance and conductivity changes should persist after terminating the pulsed electric field. Thus, monitoring the impedance or conductivity of target and/or non-target tissue may be utilized to determine the onset of electroporation and to determine the type or extent of electroporation. Furthermore, monitoring data may be used in one or more manual or automatic feedback loops to control the electroporation. It would be desirable to provide methods and apparatus for achieving bilateral renal neuromodulation. SUMMARY The present invention provides methods and apparatus for neuromodulation, e.g., via a pulsed electric field (“PEF”), via a stimulation electric field, via localized drug delivery, via high frequency ultrasound, via thermal techniques, combinations thereof, etc. Such neuromodulation may, for example, effectuate irreversible electroporation or electrofusion, necrosis and/or inducement of apoptosis, alteration of gene expression, action potential blockade or attenuation, changes in cytokine up-regulation and other conditions in target neural fibers. In some patients, when the neuromodulatory methods and apparatus of the present invention are applied to renal nerves and/or other neural fibers that contribute to renal neural functions, applicants believe that the neuromodulatory effects induced by the neuromodulation might result in increased urine output, decreased plasma renin levels, decreased tissue (e.g., kidney) and/or urine catecholamines (e.g., norepinephrine), increased urinary sodium excretion, and/or controlled blood pressure. Furthermore, applicants believe that these or other changes might prevent or treat congestive heart failure, hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, end-stage renal disease, contrast nephropathy, other renal system diseases, and/or other renal or cardio-renal anomalies. The methods and apparatus described herein could be used to modulate efferent or afferent nerve signals, as well as combinations of efferent and afferent nerve signals. Renal neuromodulation preferably is performed in a bilateral fashion, such that neural fibers contributing to renal function of both the right and left kidneys are modulated. Bilateral renal neuromodulation may provide enhanced therapeutic effect in some patients as compared to renal neuromodulation performed unilaterally, i.e., as compared to renal neuromodulation performed on neural tissue innervating a single kidney. In some embodiments, concurrent modulation of neural fibers that contribute to both right and left renal function may be achieved. In additional or alternative embodiments, such modulation of the right and left neural fibers may be sequential. Bilateral renal neuromodulation may be continuous or intermittent, as desired. When utilizing an electric field, the electric field parameters may be altered and combined in any combination, as desired. Such parameters can include, but are not limited to, voltage, field strength, pulse width, pulse duration, the shape of the pulse, the number of pulses and/or the interval between pulses (e.g., duty cycle), etc. For example, when utilizing a pulsed electric field, suitable field strengths can be up to about 10,000 V/cm and suitable pulse widths can be up to about 1 second. Suitable shapes of the pulse waveform include, for example, AC waveforms, sinusoidal waves, cosine waves, combinations of sine and cosine waves, DC waveforms, DC-shifted AC waveforms, RF waveforms, square waves, trapezoidal waves, exponentially-decaying waves, or combinations. The field includes at least one pulse, and in many applications the field includes a plurality of pulses. Suitable pulse intervals include, for example, intervals less than about 10 seconds. These parameters are provided as suitable examples and in no way should be considered limiting. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Several embodiments of the present invention will be apparent upon consideration of the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like reference characters refer to like parts throughout, and in which: FIG. 1 is a schematic view illustrating human renal anatomy. FIG. 2 is a schematic isometric detail view showing the location of the renal nerves relative to the renal artery. FIGS. 3A and 3B are schematic isometric and end views, respectively, illustrating orienting of an electric field for selectively affecting renal nerves. FIG. 4 is a schematic side view, partially in section, illustrating an example of an extravascular method and apparatus for renal neuromodulation. FIGS. 5A and 5B are schematic side views, partially in section, illustrating examples of, respectively, intravascular and intra-to-extravascular methods and apparatus for renal neuromodulation. FIGS. 6A-6H are schematic side views, partially in section, illustrating methods of achieving bilateral renal neuromodulation utilizing apparatus of the present invention, illustratively utilizing the apparatus of FIG. 5A . FIGS. 7A and 7B are schematic side views, partially in section, illustrating methods of achieving concurrent bilateral renal neuromodulation utilizing embodiments of the apparatus of FIG. 5A . FIG. 8 is a schematic side view, partially in section, illustrating methods of achieving concurrent bilateral renal neuromodulation utilizing an alternative embodiment of the apparatus of FIG. 4 . FIG. 9 is a schematic view illustrating an example of methods and apparatus for achieving bilateral renal neuromodulation via localized drug delivery. DETAILED DESCRIPTION A. Overview The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for neuromodulation, e.g., denervation. In some embodiments, the present invention provides methods and apparatus for achieving bilateral renal neuromodulation. Bilateral renal neuromodulation may provide enhanced therapeutic effect in some patients as compared to renal neuromodulation performed unilaterally, i.e., as compared to renal neuromodulation performed on neural tissue innervating a single kidney. In some embodiments, concurrent modulation of neural fibers that contribute to both right and left renal function may be achieved. In additional or alternative embodiments, such modulation of the right and left neural fibers may be sequential. Bilateral renal neuromodulation may be continuous or intermittent, as desired. The methods and apparatus of the present invention may be used to modulate neural fibers that contribute to renal function and may exploit any suitable neuromodulatory techniques that will achieve the desired neuromodulation. For example, any suitable electrical signal or field parameters, e.g., any electric field that will achieve the desired neuromodulation (e.g., electroporative effect) may be utilized. Alternatively or additionally, neuromodulation may be achieved via localized delivery of a neuromodulatory agent or drug. To better understand the structures of devices of the present invention and the methods of using such devices for bilateral renal neuromodulation, it is instructive to examine the renal anatomy in humans. B. Selected Embodiments of Methods for Neuromodulation With reference now to FIG. 1 , the human renal anatomy includes kidneys K that are supplied with oxygenated blood by renal arteries RA, which are connected to the heart by the abdominal aorta AA. Deoxygenated blood flows from the kidneys to the heart via renal veins RV and the inferior vena cava IVC. FIG. 2 illustrates a portion of the renal anatomy in greater detail. More specifically, the renal anatomy also includes renal nerves RN extending longitudinally along the lengthwise dimension L of renal artery RA generally within the adventitia of the artery. The renal artery RA has smooth muscle cells SMC that surround the arterial circumference and spiral around the angular axis θ of the artery. The smooth muscle cells of the renal artery accordingly have a lengthwise or longer dimension extending transverse (i.e., non-parallel) to the lengthwise dimension of the renal artery. The misalignment of the lengthwise dimensions of the renal nerves and the smooth muscle cells is defined as “cellular misalignment.” Referring to FIGS. 3A and 3B , the cellular misalignment of the renal nerves and the smooth muscle cells may be exploited to selectively affect renal nerve cells with reduced effect on smooth muscle cells. More specifically, because larger cells require a lower electric field strength to exceed the cell membrane irreversibility threshold voltage or energy for irreversible electroporation, embodiments of electrodes of the present invention may be configured to align at least a portion of an electric field generated by the electrodes with or near the longer dimensions of the cells to be affected. In specific embodiments, the device has electrodes configured to create an electrical field aligned with or near the lengthwise dimension L of the renal artery RA to affect renal nerves RN. By aligning an electric field so that the field preferentially aligns with the lengthwise aspect of the cell rather than the diametric or radial aspect of the cell, lower field strengths may be used to affect target neural cells, e.g., to necrose or fuse the target cells, to induce apoptosis, to alter gene expression, to attenuate or block action potentials, to change cytokine up-regulation and/or to induce other suitable processes. This is expected to reduce total energy delivered to the system and to mitigate effects on non-target cells in the electric field. Similarly, the lengthwise or longer dimensions of tissues overlying or underlying the target nerve are orthogonal or otherwise off-axis (e.g., transverse) with respect to the longer dimensions of the nerve cells. Thus, in addition to aligning a pulsed electric field (“PEF”) with the lengthwise or longer dimensions of the target cells, the PEF may propagate along the lateral or shorter dimensions of the non-target cells (i.e., such that the PEF propagates at least partially out of alignment with non-target smooth muscle cells SMC). Therefore, as seen in FIGS. 3A and 3B , applying a PEF with propagation lines Li generally aligned with the longitudinal dimension L of the renal artery RA is expected to preferentially cause electroporation (e.g., irreversible electroporation), electrofusion or other neuromodulation in cells of the target renal nerves RN without unduly affecting the non-target arterial smooth muscle cells SMC. The pulsed electric field may propagate in a single plane along the longitudinal axis of the renal artery, or may propagate in the longitudinal direction along any angular segment θ through a range of 0°-360°. A PEF system placed within and/or in proximity to the wall of the renal artery may propagate an electric field having a longitudinal portion that is aligned to run with the longitudinal dimension of the artery in the region of the renal nerves RN and the smooth muscle cells SMC of the vessel wall so that the wall of the artery remains at least substantially intact while the outer nerve cells are destroyed, fused or otherwise affected. Monitoring elements may be utilized to assess an extent of, e.g., electroporation, induced in renal nerves and/or in smooth muscle cells, as well as to adjust PEF parameters to achieve a desired effect. C. Exemplary Embodiments of Systems and Additional Methods for Neuromodulation With reference to FIGS. 4 and 5 , examples of PEF systems and methods are described. FIG. 4 shows one embodiment of an extravascular pulsed electric field apparatus 200 that includes one or more electrodes configured to deliver a pulsed electric field to renal neural fibers to achieve renal neuromodulation. The apparatus of FIG. 4 is configured for temporary extravascular placement; however, it should be understood that partially or completely implantable extravascular apparatus additionally or alternatively may be utilized. Applicants have previously described extravascular PEF systems, for example, in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/189,563, filed Jul. 25, 2005, which has been incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In FIG. 4 , apparatus 200 comprises a laparoscopic or percutaneous PEF system having a probe 210 configured for insertion in proximity to the track of the renal neural supply along the renal artery or vein or hilum and/or within Gerota's fascia under, e.g., CT or radiographic guidance. At least one electrode 212 is configured for delivery through the probe 210 to a treatment site for delivery of pulsed electric field therapy. The electrode(s) 212 , for example, may be mounted on a catheter and electrically coupled to a pulse generator 50 via wires 211 . In an alternative embodiment, a distal section of the probe 210 may have one electrode 212 , and the probe may have an electrical connector to couple the probe to the pulse generator 50 for delivering a PEF to the electrode(s) 212 . The pulsed electric field generator 50 is located external to the patient. The generator, as well as any of the PEF-delivery electrode embodiments described herein, may be utilized with any embodiment of the present invention for delivery of a PEF with desired field parameters. It should be understood that PEF-delivery electrodes of embodiments described hereinafter may be electrically connected to the generator even though the generator is not explicitly shown or described with each embodiment. The electrode(s) 212 can be individual electrodes that are electrically independent of each other, a segmented electrode with commonly connected contacts, or a continuous electrode. A segmented electrode may, for example, be formed by providing a slotted tube fitted onto the electrode, or by electrically connecting a series of individual electrodes. Individual electrodes or groups of electrodes 212 may be configured to provide a bipolar signal. The electrodes 212 may be dynamically assignable to facilitate monopolar and/or bipolar energy delivery between any of the electrodes and/or between any of the electrodes and an external ground pad. Such a ground pad may, for example, be attached externally to the patient's skin, e.g., to the patient's leg or flank. In FIG. 4 , the electrodes 212 comprise a bipolar electrode pair. The probe 210 and the electrodes 212 may be similar to the standard needle or trocar-type used clinically for pulsed RF nerve block. Alternatively, the apparatus 200 may comprise a flexible and/or custom-designed probe for the renal application described herein. In FIG. 4 , the percutaneous probe 210 has been advanced through a percutaneous access site P into proximity with a patient's renal artery RA. The probe pierces the patient's Gerota's fascia F, and the electrodes 212 are advanced into position through the probe and along the annular space between the patient's artery and fascia. Once properly positioned, pulsed electric field therapy may be applied to target neural fibers across the bipolar electrodes 212 . Such PEF therapy may, for example, at least partially denervate the kidney innervated by the target neural fibers through irreversible electroporation of cells of the target neural fibers. The electrodes 212 optionally also may be used to monitor the electroporative effects of the PEF therapy. After treatment, the apparatus 200 may be removed from the patient to conclude the procedure. Referring now to FIG. 5A , an embodiment of an intravascular PEF system is described. Applicants have previously described intravascular PEF systems, for example, in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/129,765, filed May 13, 2005, which has been incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The embodiment of FIG. 5A includes an apparatus 300 comprising a catheter 302 having a centering element 304 (e.g., a balloon, an expandable wire basket, other mechanical expanders, etc.), shaft electrodes 306 a and 306 b disposed along the shaft of the catheter, and optional radiopaque markers 308 disposed along the shaft of the catheter in the region of the centering element 304 . The electrodes 306 a - b , for example, can be arranged such that the electrode 306 a is near a proximal end of the centering element 304 and the electrode 306 b is near the distal end of the centering element 304 . The electrodes 306 are electrically coupled to the pulse generator 50 (see FIG. 4 ), which is disposed external to the patient, for delivery of the PEF therapy. The centering element 304 may comprise an impedance-altering element that alters the impedance between electrodes 306 a and 306 b during the PEF therapy, for example, to better direct the PEF therapy across the vessel wall. This may reduce an applied voltage required to achieve desired renal neuromodulation. Applicants have previously described use of an impedance-altering element, for example, in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/266,993, filed Nov. 4, 2005, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. When the centering element 304 comprises an inflatable balloon, the balloon may serve as both the centering element for the electrodes 306 and as an impedance-altering electrical insulator for directing an electric field delivered across the electrodes, e.g., for directing the electric field into or across the vessel wall for modulation of target neural fibers. Electrical insulation provided by the element 304 may reduce the magnitude of applied voltage or other parameters of the pulsed electric field necessary to achieve desired field strength at the target fibers. The electrodes 306 can be individual electrodes (i.e., independent contacts), a segmented electrode with commonly connected contacts, or a single continuous electrode. Furthermore, the electrodes 306 may be configured to provide a bipolar signal, or the electrodes 306 may be used together or individually in conjunction with a separate patient ground pad for monopolar use. As an alternative or in addition to placement of the electrodes 306 along the central shaft of catheter 302 , as in FIG. 5A , the electrodes 306 may be attached to the centering element 304 such that they contact the wall of the renal artery RA. In such a variation, the electrodes may, for example, be affixed to the inside surface, outside surface or at least partially embedded within the wall of the centering element. The electrodes optionally may be used to monitor the effects of PEF therapy, as described hereinafter. As it may be desirable to reduce or minimize physical contact between the PEF-delivery electrodes and the vessel wall during delivery of PEF therapy, e.g., to reduce the potential for injuring the wall, the electrodes 306 may, for example, comprise a first set of electrodes attached to the shaft of the catheter for delivering the PEF therapy, and the device may further include a second set of electrodes optionally attached to the centering element 304 for monitoring the effects of PEF therapy delivered via the electrodes 306 . In use, the catheter 302 may be delivered to the renal artery RA as shown, or it may be delivered to a renal vein or to any other vessel in proximity to neural tissue contributing to renal function, in a low profile delivery configuration, for example, through a guide catheter. Once positioned within the renal vasculature, the optional centering element 304 may be expanded into contact with an interior wall of the vessel. A pulsed electric field then may be generated by the PEF generator 50 , transferred through the catheter 302 to the electrodes 306 , and delivered via the electrodes 306 across the wall of the artery. The PEF therapy modulates the activity along neural fibers that contribute to renal function, e.g., at least partially denervates the kidney innervated by the neural fibers. This may be achieved, for example, via irreversible electroporation, electrofusion and/or inducement of apoptosis in the nerve cells. In many applications, the electrodes are arranged so that the pulsed electric field is aligned with the longitudinal dimension of the renal artery to facilitate modulation of renal nerves with little effect on non-target smooth muscle cells or other cells. In addition to extravascular and intravascular PEF systems, intra-to-extravascular PEF systems may be provided having electrode(s) that are delivered to an intravascular position, then at least partially passed through/across the vessel wall to an extravascular position prior to delivery of PEF therapy. Intra-to-extravascular positioning of the electrode(s) may place the electrode(s) in closer proximity to target neural fibers during the PEF therapy compared to fully intravascular positioning of the electrode(s). Applicants have previously described intra-to-extravascular PEF systems, for example, in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/324,188 (hereinafter, “the '188 application”), filed Dec. 29, 2005, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. With reference to FIG. 5B , one embodiment of an intra-to-extravascular (“ITEV”) PEF system, described previously in the '188 application, is shown. ITEV PEF system 320 comprises a catheter 322 having (a) a plurality of proximal electrode lumens terminating at proximal side ports 324 , (b) a plurality of distal electrode lumens terminating at distal side ports 326 , and (c) a guidewire lumen 323 . The catheter 322 preferably comprises an equal number of proximal and distal electrode lumens and side ports. The system 320 also includes proximal needle electrodes 328 that may be advanced through the proximal electrode lumens and the proximal side ports 324 , as well as distal needle electrodes 329 that may be advanced through the distal electrode lumens and the distal side ports 326 . Catheter 322 comprises an optional expandable centering element 330 , which may comprise an inflatable balloon or an expandable basket or cage. In use, the centering element 330 may be expanded prior to deployment of the needle electrodes 328 and 329 in order to center the catheter 322 within the patient's vessel (e.g., within renal artery RA). Centering the catheter 322 is expected to facilitate delivery of all needle electrodes to desired depths within/external to the patient's vessel (e.g., to deliver all of the needle electrodes approximately to the same depth). In FIG. 5B , the illustrated centering element 330 is positioned between the proximal side ports 324 and the distal side ports 326 , i.e., between the delivery positions of the proximal and distal electrodes. However, it should be understood that centering element 330 additionally or alternatively may be positioned at a different location or at multiple locations along the length of the catheter 322 (e.g., at a location proximal of the side ports 324 and/or at a location distal of the side ports 326 ). As illustrated in FIG. 5B , the catheter 322 may be advanced to a treatment site within the patient's vasculature (e.g., to a treatment site within the patient's renal artery RA) over a guidewire (not shown) via the lumen 323 . During intravascular delivery, the electrodes 328 and 329 may be positioned such that their non-insulated and sharpened distal regions are positioned within the proximal and distal lumens, respectively. Once positioned at a treatment site, a medical practitioner may advance the electrodes via their proximal regions that are located external to the patient. Such advancement causes the distal regions of the electrodes 328 and 329 to exit side ports 324 and 326 , respectively, and pierce the wall of the patient's vasculature such that the electrodes are positioned extravascularly via an ITEV approach. The proximal electrodes 328 can be connected to PEF generator 50 as active electrodes and the distal electrodes 329 can serve as return electrodes. In this manner, the proximal and distal electrodes form bipolar electrode pairs that align PEF therapy with a longitudinal axis or direction of the patient's vasculature. As will be apparent, the distal electrodes 329 alternatively may comprise the active electrodes and the proximal electrodes 328 may comprise the return electrodes. Furthermore, the proximal and/or the distal electrodes may comprise both active and return electrodes. Any combination of active and distal electrodes may be utilized, as desired. When the electrodes 328 and 329 are connected to PEF generator 50 and are positioned extravascularly, and with centering element 330 optionally expanded, PEF therapy may proceed to achieve desired neuromodulation. After completion of the PEF therapy, the electrodes may be retracted within the proximal and distal lumens, and centering element 330 may be collapsed for retrieval. ITEV PEF system 320 then may be removed from the patient to complete the procedure. Additionally or alternatively, the system may be repositioned to provide PEF therapy at another treatment site, for example, to provide bilateral renal neuromodulation. It is expected that PEF therapy, as well as other methods and apparatus of the present invention for neuromodulation (e.g., stimulation electric fields, localized drug delivery, high frequency ultrasound, thermal techniques, etc.), whether delivered extravascularly, intravascularly, intra-to-extravascularly or a combination thereof, may, for example, effectuate irreversible electroporation or electrofusion, necrosis and/or inducement of apoptosis, alteration of gene expression, action potential blockade or attenuation, changes in cytokine up-regulation and other conditions in target neural fibers. In some patients, when such neuromodulatory methods and apparatus are applied to renal nerves and/or other neural fibers that contribute to renal neural functions, applicants believe that the neuromodulatory effects induced by the neuromodulation might result in increased urine output, decreased plasma renin levels, decreased tissue (e.g., kidney) and/or urine catecholamines (e.g., norepinephrine), increased urinary sodium excretion, and/or controlled blood pressure. Furthermore, applicants believe that these or other changes might prevent or treat congestive heart failure, hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, end-stage renal disease, contrast nephropathy, other renal system diseases, and/or other renal or cardio-renal anomalies for a period of months, potentially up to six months or more. This time period may be sufficient to allow the body to heal; for example, this period may reduce the risk of CHF onset after an acute myocardial infarction, thereby alleviating a need for subsequent re-treatment. Alternatively, as symptoms reoccur, or at regularly scheduled intervals, the patient may return to the physician for a repeat therapy. The methods and apparatus described herein could be used to modulate efferent or afferent nerve signals, as well as combinations of efferent and afferent nerve signals. Neuromodulation in accordance with the present invention preferably is achieved without completely physically severing, i.e., without fully cutting, the target neural fibers. However, it should be understood that such neuromodulation may functionally sever the neural fibers, even though the fibers may not be completely physically severed. Apparatus and methods described herein illustratively are configured for percutaneous use. Such percutaneous use may be endoluminal, laparoscopic, a combination thereof, etc. The apparatus described above with respect to FIGS. 4 and 5 additionally may be used to quantify the efficacy, extent or cell selectivity of PEF therapy to monitor and/or control the therapy. When a pulsed electric field initiates electroporation, the impedance of the electroporated tissue begins to decrease and the conductivity of the tissue begins to increase. If the electroporation is reversible, the tissue electrical parameters will return or approximate baseline values upon cessation of the PEF. However, if the electroporation is irreversible, the changes in tissue parameters will persist after termination of the PEF. These phenomena may be utilized to monitor both the onset and the effects of PEF therapy. For example, electroporation may be monitored directly using, for example, conductivity measurements or impedance measurements, such as Electrical Impedance Tomography (“EIT”) and/or other electrical impedance/conductivity measurements like an electrical impedance or conductivity index. Such electroporation monitoring data optionally may be used in one or more feedback loops to control delivery of PEF therapy. In order to collect the desired monitoring data, additional monitoring electrodes optionally may be provided in proximity to the monitored tissue. The distance between such monitoring electrodes preferably would be specified prior to therapy delivery and used to determine conductivity from impedance or conductance measurements. For the purposes of the present invention, the imaginary part of impedance may be ignored such that impedance is defined as voltage divided by current, while conductance may be defined as the inverse of impedance (i.e., current divided by voltage), and conductivity may be defined as conductance per unit distance. Applicants have previously described methods and apparatus for monitoring PEF therapy, as well as exemplary PEF waveforms, in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/233,814, filed Sep. 23, 2005, which has been incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Although the embodiments of FIGS. 4 and 5 illustratively comprise bipolar apparatus, it should be understood that monopolar apparatus alternatively may be utilized. For example, an active monopolar electrode may be positioned intravascularly, extravascularly or intra-to-extravascularly in proximity to target neural fibers that contribute to renal function. A return electrode ground pad may be attached to the exterior of the patient. Finally, PEF therapy may be delivered between to the in vivo monopolar electrode and the ground pad to effectuate desired renal neuromodulation. Monopolar apparatus additionally may be utilized for bilateral renal neuromodulation. It may be desirable to achieve bilateral renal neuromodulation. Bilateral neuromodulation may enhance the therapeutic effect in some patients as compared to renal neuromodulation performed unilaterally, i.e., as compared to renal neuromodulation performed on neural tissue innervating a single kidney. For example, bilateral renal neuromodulation may further reduce clinical symptoms of CHF, hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, contrast nephropathy, renal disease and/or other cardio-renal diseases. FIGS. 6A-6H illustrate stages of a method for bilateral renal neuromodulation utilizing the intravascular apparatus of FIG. 5A . However, it should be understood that such bilateral neuromodulation alternatively may be achieved utilizing the extravascular apparatus of FIG. 4 , utilizing the intra-to-extravascular apparatus of FIG. 5B , or utilizing any alternative intravascular apparatus, extravascular apparatus, intra-to-extravascular apparatus (including monopolar apparatus) or combination thereof. As seen in FIGS. 6A and 6E , a guide catheter GC and a guidewire G may be advanced into position within, or in proximity to, either the patient's left renal artery LRA or right renal artery RRA. In FIG. 6A , the guidewire illustratively has been positioned in the right renal artery RRA, but it should be understood that the order of bilateral renal neuromodulation illustrated in FIGS. 6A-6H alternatively may be reversed. Additionally or alternatively, bilateral renal neuromodulation may be performed concurrently on both right and left neural fibers that contribute to renal function, as in FIGS. 7-9 , rather than sequentially, as in FIG. 6 . With the guidewire and the guide catheter positioned in the right renal artery, the catheter 302 of the apparatus 300 may be advanced over the guidewire and through the guide catheter into position within the artery. As seen in FIG. 6B , the optional centering element 304 of the catheter 302 is in a reduced delivery configuration during delivery of the catheter to the renal artery. In FIG. 6C , once the catheter is properly positioned for PEF therapy, the element 304 optionally may be expanded into contact with the vessel wall, and the guidewire G may be retracted from the treatment zone, e.g., may be removed from the patient or may be positioned more proximally within the patient's aorta. Expansion of element 304 may center the electrodes 306 within the vessel and/or may alter impedance between the electrodes. With apparatus 300 positioned and deployed as desired, PEF therapy may be delivered in a bipolar fashion across the electrodes 306 to achieve renal neuromodulation in neural fibers that contribute to right renal function, e.g., to at least partially achieve renal denervation of the right kidney. As illustrated by propagation lines Li, the pulsed electric field may be aligned with a longitudinal dimension of the renal artery RA and may pass across the vessel wall. The alignment and propagation path of the pulsed electric field is expected to preferentially modulate cells of the target renal nerves without unduly affecting non-target arterial smooth muscle cells. As seen in FIG. 6D , after completion of the PEF therapy, the element 304 may be collapsed back to the reduced delivery profile, and the catheter 302 may be retracted from the right renal artery RRA, for example, to a position in the guide catheter GC within the patient's abdominal aorta. Likewise, the guide catheter GC may be retracted to a position within the patient's aorta. The retracted guide catheter may be repositioned, e.g., rotated, such that its distal outlet is generally aligned with the left renal artery LRA. The guidewire G then may be re-advanced through the catheter 302 and the guide catheter GC to a position within the left renal artery LRA, as shown in FIG. 6E (as will be apparent, the order of advancement of the guidewire and the guide catheter optionally may be reversed when accessing either renal artery). Next, the catheter 302 may be re-advanced over the guidewire and through the guide catheter into position within the left renal artery, as shown in FIG. 6F . In FIG. 6G , once the catheter is properly positioned for PEF therapy, the element 304 optionally may be expanded into contact with the vessel wall, and the guidewire G may be retracted to a position proximal of the treatment site. PEF therapy then may be delivered in a bipolar fashion across the electrodes 306 , for example, along propagation lines Li, to achieve renal neuromodulation in neural fibers that contribute to left renal function, e.g., to at least partially achieve renal denervation of the left kidney. As seen in FIG. 6H , after completion of the bilateral PEF therapy, the element 304 may be collapsed back to the reduced delivery profile, and the catheter 302 , as well as the guidewire G and the guide catheter GC, may be removed from the patient to complete the bilateral renal neuromodulation procedure. As discussed previously, bilateral renal neuromodulation optionally may be performed concurrently on fibers that contribute to both right and left renal function. FIGS. 7A and 7B illustrate embodiments of apparatus 300 for performing concurrent bilateral renal neuromodulation. In the embodiment of FIG. 7A , apparatus 300 comprises dual PEF therapy catheters 302 , as well as dual guidewires G and guide catheters GC. One catheter 302 is positioned within the right renal artery RRA, and the other catheter 302 is positioned within the left renal artery LRA. With catheters 302 positioned in both the right and left renal arteries, PEF therapy may be delivered concurrently by the catheters 302 to achieve concurrent bilateral renal neuromodulation, illustratively via an intravascular approach. In one example, separate arteriotomy sites may be made in the patient's right and left femoral arteries for percutaneous delivery of the two catheters 302 . Alternatively, both catheters 302 may be delivered through a single femoral access site, either through dual guide catheters or through a single guide catheter. FIG. 7B illustrates an example of apparatus 300 for concurrent bilateral renal neuromodulation utilizing a single arteriotomy access site. In the example of FIG. 7B , both catheters 302 are delivered through a custom bifurcated guide catheter GC′ having a bifurcated distal region for concurrently delivering the catheters 302 to the right and left renal arteries. Concurrent (or sequential) bilateral PEF therapy then may proceed. FIG. 8 illustrates additional methods and apparatus for concurrent bilateral renal neuromodulation. In FIG. 8 , an embodiment of extravascular apparatus 200 comprising dual probes 210 and electrodes 212 . The electrodes have been positioned in the vicinity of both the left renal artery LRA and the right renal artery RRA. PEF therapy may be delivered concurrently by the electrodes 212 to achieve concurrent bilateral renal neuromodulation, illustratively via an extravascular approach. As will be apparent, intra-to-extravascular apparatus alternatively may be utilized for bilateral renal neuromodulation. Such bilateral renal neuromodulation may be performed sequentially, concurrently or a combination thereof. For example, ITEV PEF system 320 of FIG. 5B may be utilized for bilateral renal neuromodulation. Additional methods and apparatus for achieving renal neuromodulation, e.g., via localized drug delivery (such as by a drug pump or infusion catheter) or via use of a stimulation electric field, etc, also may utilized. Examples of such methods and apparatus have been described previously, for example, in co-owned and co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/408,665, filed Apr. 8, 2003, and in U.S. Pat. No. 6,978,174, both of which have been incorporated herein by reference in their entireties. FIG. 9 shows one example of methods and apparatus for achieving bilateral renal neuromodulation via localized drug delivery. In FIG. 9 , drug reservoir 400 , illustratively an implantable drug pump, has been implanted within the patient. Drug delivery catheters 402 a and 402 b are connected to the drug reservoir and extend to the vicinity of the right renal artery RRA and the left renal artery LRA, respectively, for delivery of one or more neuromodulatory agents or drugs capable of modulating neural fibers that contribute renal function. Delivering the agent(s) through catheters 402 a and 402 b may achieve bilateral renal neuromodulation. Such drug delivery through catheters 402 a and 402 b may be conducted concurrently or sequentially, as well as continuously or intermittently, as desired, in order to provide concurrent or sequential, continuous or intermittent, renal neuromodulation, respectively. In an alternative embodiment of the apparatus of FIG. 9 , catheters 402 a and 402 b may only temporarily be positioned at a desired location, e.g., for acute delivery of the neuromodulatory agent(s) from an external drug reservoir, such as a syringe. Such temporary positioning may comprise, for example, intravascular, extravascular and/or intra-to-extravascular placement of the catheters. In another alternative embodiment, the drug reservoir 400 may be replaced with an implantable neurostimulator or a pacemaker-type device, and catheters 402 may be replaced with electrical leads coupled to the neurostimulator for delivery of an electric field, such as a pulsed electric field or a stimulation electric field, to the target neural fibers. In yet another alternative embodiment, electrical techniques may be combined with delivery of neuromodulatory agent(s) to achieve desired bilateral renal neuromodulation. Although preferred illustrative variations of the present invention are described above, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made thereto without departing from the invention. For example, although the variations primarily have been described for use in combination with pulsed electric fields, it should be understood that any other electric field may be delivered as desired, including stimulation or nerve block electric fields, and any other alternative neuromodulatory techniques, such as localized delivery of a neuromodulatory agent or drug, may be utilized. It is intended in the appended claims to cover all such changes and modifications that fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.

Description

Topics

Download Full PDF Version (Non-Commercial Use)

Patent Citations (650)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    US-5458631-AOctober 17, 1995Xavier; RaviImplantable catheter with electrical pulse nerve stimulators and drug delivery system
    US-2009036948-A1February 05, 2009Ardian, Inc.Renal nerve stimulation methods for treatment of patients
    US-6690971-B2February 10, 2004Biotronik Mess - Und Therapiegeraete Gmbh & Co. Ingenieurbuero BerlinDevice for regulating heart rate and heart pumping force
    US-5400784-AMarch 28, 1995Case Western Reserve UniversitySlowly penetrating inter-fascicular nerve cuff electrode and method of using
    US-2011257564-A1October 20, 2011Ardian, Inc.Methods for thermal modulation of nerves contributing to renal function
    WO-2005016165-A8February 16, 2006Craig A Ball, Jeffrey M Elkins, Flowmedica Inc, Iv Harry B Goodson, Vandana S Mathur, Samir R PatelSysteme et methode de prevention de la nephropathie induite par les produits de contraste radiologique
    US-5573552-ANovember 12, 1996Hansjurgens; AchimElectrotherapeutic apparatus
    US-4692147-ASeptember 08, 1987Medtronic, Inc.Drug administration device
    US-2013253471-A1September 26, 2013Medtronic Ardian Luxembourg S.a.r.I.Methods and Apparatus for Treating Contrast Nephropathy
    US-5928272-AJuly 27, 1999Cyberonics, Inc.Automatic activation of a neurostimulator device using a detection algorithm based on cardiac activity
    WO-2007063324-A1June 07, 2007Frank's International, Inc.Procede et appareil d'installation de tube conducteur de deviation
    WO-9220291-A1November 26, 1992Applied Medical Resources, Inc.Articulating tissue cutter assembly
    US-6292695-B1September 18, 2001Wilton W. Webster, Jr., Benjamin J. Scherlag, Michael Scherlag, Patrick SchauerteMethod and apparatus for transvascular treatment of tachycardia and fibrillation
    US-6522932-B1February 18, 2003Advanced Bionics CorporationImplantable, expandable, multicontact electrodes and tools for use therewith
    US-4055190-AOctober 25, 1977Michio TanyElectrical therapeutic apparatus
    US-5370680-ADecember 06, 1994Magnetic Resonance Therapeutics, Inc.Athermapeutic apparatus employing electro-magnetic fields
    US-5935075-AAugust 10, 1999Texas Heart InstituteDetecting thermal discrepancies in vessel walls
    US-5954719-ASeptember 21, 1999Irvine Biomedical, Inc.System for operating a RF ablation generator
    US-4671286-AJune 09, 1987Compagnie Francaise d'Electronique Medicale International SA (C.O.F.R.E.M. International SA)RF therapy apparatus
    US-5906817-AMay 25, 1999Institut PasteurBiocompatible implant for the expression and in vivo secretion of a therapeutic substance
    US-4530840-AJuly 23, 1985The Stolle Research And Development Corporation, Southern Research InstituteInjectable, long-acting microparticle formulation for the delivery of anti-inflammatory agents
    US-5193048-AMarch 09, 1993Kaufman Dennis R, Keeley William AStun gun with low battery indicator and shutoff timer
    US-5891181-AApril 06, 1999Zhu; QiangBlood pressure depressor
    US-6482619-B1November 19, 2002The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaCell/tissue analysis via controlled electroporation
    US-2006100667-A1May 11, 2006Sandra Machado, Ali Rezai, Andre MachadoMethods and systems of achieving hemodynamic control through neuromodulation
    US-3127895-AApril 07, 1964Dynapower System CorpTherapeutic pulse generation and control circuit
    US-6214032-B1April 10, 2001Advanced Bionics CorporationSystem for implanting a microstimulator
    US-6622731-B2September 23, 2003Rita Medical Systems, Inc.Bone-treatment instrument and method
    US-2006206149-A1September 14, 2006Yun Anthony JMethods and compositions for treating a disease condition in a subject
    US-2008140150-A1June 12, 2008Xiaohong Zhou, Mullen Thomas J, King Gary W, Hill Michael R SMethods and apparatus for the regulation of hormone release
    US-2276995-AMarch 17, 1942A J GinsbergElectrotherapy
    US-6564096-B2May 13, 2003Robert A. MestMethod and system for treatment of tachycardia and fibrillation
    US-2004064091-A1April 01, 2004Gad Keren, Ascher Schmulewitz, Benjamin Spenser, Michael Arad, Kesten Randy J., Sophia Pesotchinsky, Rosenthal Michael H., Kramer Andrew W., Payne Sam G.Apparatus and methods for treating congestive heart disease
    US-6326020-B1December 04, 2001Children's Medical Center Corporation, Brigham And Women's HospitalLocal anesthetic formulations
    US-5458568-AOctober 17, 1995Cortrak Medical, Inc.Porous balloon for selective dilatation and drug delivery
    WO-2008049084-A2April 24, 2008Minnow Medical, Inc.Rayonnement radiofréquence accordé et caractérisation électrique des tissus pour traitement sélectif de tissus cibles
    US-5916239-AJune 29, 1999Purdue Research FoundationMethod and apparatus using vagal stimulation for control of ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation
    US-5397308-AMarch 14, 1995Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Balloon inflation measurement apparatus
    US-6508774-B1January 21, 2003Transurgical, Inc.Hifu applications with feedback control
    US-5540730-AJuly 30, 1996Cyberonics, Inc.Treatment of motility disorders by nerve stimulation
    US-2005240126-A1October 27, 2005University Of WashingtonUltrasound guided high intensity focused ultrasound treatment of nerves
    US-5199428-AApril 06, 1993Medtronic, Inc.Implantable electrical nerve stimulator/pacemaker with ischemia for decreasing cardiac workload
    WO-2004032791-A3July 01, 2004Ricardo Aboytes, Craig A Ball, Jeffrey M Elkins, Flowmedica Inc, Harry B Goodson Iv, Randy J Kesten, Andrew K Kramer, Samir R Patel, Sam G Payne, Sophia Pesotchinsky, Michael H Rosenthal, Aurelio ValenciaMethod and apparatus for selective material delivery via an intra-renal catheter
    US-6681136-B2January 20, 2004Science Medicus, Inc.Device and method to modulate blood pressure by electrical waveforms
    US-4405305-ASeptember 20, 1983University Of Utah Research FoundationSubcutaneous peritoneal injection catheter
    US-6123718-ASeptember 26, 2000Polymerex Medical Corp.Balloon catheter
    US-6280377-B1August 28, 2001Scimed Life Systems, Inc.System for treating congestive heart failure
    US-5531778-AJuly 02, 1996Cyberonics, Inc.Circumneural electrode assembly
    US-2005209642-A1September 22, 2005Yoram PaltiTreating a tumor or the like with electric fields at different orientations
    US-5626862-AMay 06, 1997Massachusetts Institute Of Technology, The Johns Hopkins UniversityControlled local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents for treating solid tumors
    US-7162303-B2January 09, 2007Ardian, Inc.Renal nerve stimulation method and apparatus for treatment of patients
    US-4315503-AFebruary 16, 1982Electro-Biology, Inc.Modification of the growth, repair and maintenance behavior of living tissues and cells by a specific and selective change in electrical environment
    US-2005171523-A1August 04, 2005The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaIrreversible electroporation to control bleeding
    US-2003195507-A1October 16, 2003Medtronic, Inc.Ablation catheter and method for isolating a pulmonary vein
    US-2006111754-A1May 25, 2006Ali Rezai, Mehdi AnsariniaMethods of treating medical conditions by neuromodulation of the sympathetic nervous system
    US-2003199863-A1October 23, 2003Swanson David K., Robert Burnside, Whayne James G., Dorin PanescuSystems and methods for controlling power in an electrosurgical probe
    US-4360019-ANovember 23, 1982Andros IncorporatedImplantable infusion device
    US-6322559-B1November 27, 2001Vnus Medical Technologies, Inc.Electrode catheter having coil structure
    US-5231988-AAugust 03, 1993Cyberonics, Inc.Treatment of endocrine disorders by nerve stimulation
    US-7373204-B2May 13, 2008Lifestim, Inc.Implantable device and method for treatment of hypertension
    US-6615071-B1September 02, 2003Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas SystemMethod and apparatus for detecting vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque
    WO-9713550-A1April 17, 1997Jacob ZabaraStabilisation du rythme cardiaque au moyen d'une prothese neurocybernetique
    US-3270746-ASeptember 06, 1966Dynapower Systems CorpHigh-performance electrotherapeutic treatment head
    US-5304120-AApril 19, 1994Btx Inc.Electroporation method and apparatus for insertion of drugs and genes into endothelial cells
    US-5584863-ADecember 17, 1996Electropharmacology, Inc.Pulsed radio frequency electrotherapeutic system
    WO-0209808-A1February 07, 2002Advanced Bionics CorporationSysteme de stimulateur rechargeable de moelle epiniere
    US-5983131-ANovember 09, 1999Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyApparatus and method for electroporation of tissue
    US-5059423-AOctober 22, 1991Alza CorporationDelivery system comprising biocompatible beneficial agent formulation
    US-6697670-B2February 24, 2004Minnesota Medical Physics, LlcApparatus and method for reducing subcutaneous fat deposits by electroporation with improved comfort of patients
    US-5454782-AOctober 03, 1995Perkins; Rodney C.Translumenal circumferential energy delivery device
    WO-2006018528-A1February 23, 2006Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (Cnrs)Surveillance et controle d’une electroporation
    WO-02085448-A2October 31, 2002The Board Of Regents Of The University Of OklahomaCardiac neuromodulation and methods of using same
    WO-2006007048-A2January 19, 2006The Cleveland Clinic FoundationMethodes permettant de traiter des troubles medicaux par la neuromodulation du systeme nerveux autonome
    US-2006265015-A1November 23, 2006Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for monopolar renal neuromodulation
    US-6161048-ADecember 12, 2000Radionics, Inc.Method and system for neural tissue modification
    US-6438423-B1August 20, 2002Electrocore Technique, LlcMethod of treating complex regional pain syndromes by electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve chain
    US-5203326-AApril 20, 1993Telectronics Pacing Systems, Inc.Antiarrhythmia pacer using antiarrhythmia pacing and autonomic nerve stimulation therapy
    US-4487603-ADecember 11, 1984Cordis CorporationImplantable microinfusion pump system
    US-2005234523-A1October 20, 2005Levin Howard R, Mark GelfandRenal nerve stimulation method and apparatus for treatment of patients
    US-2006206150-A1September 14, 2006Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for treating acute myocardial infarction
    US-6676657-B2January 13, 2004The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health And Human ServicesEndoluminal radiofrequency cauterization system
    US-5324316-AJune 28, 1994Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific ResearchImplantable microstimulator
    US-6258087-B1July 10, 2001Curon Medical, Inc.Expandable electrode assemblies for forming lesions to treat dysfunction in sphincters and adjoining tissue regions
    US-4715852-ADecember 29, 1987Eaton CorporationImplanted medication infusion device
    US-5634462-AJune 03, 1997Case Western Reserve UniversityCorrugated inter-fascicular nerve cuff method and apparatus
    US-5756115-AMay 26, 1998The Population Coucil, Center For Biomedical ResearchContraceptive method using a subdermally implantable device
    US-6306423-B1October 23, 2001Allergan Sales, Inc.Neurotoxin implant
    US-5335657-AAugust 09, 1994Cyberonics, Inc.Therapeutic treatment of sleep disorder by nerve stimulation
    US-2006276852-A1December 07, 2006Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for treating hypertension
    US-6326177-B1December 04, 2001Eastern Virginia Medical School Of The Medical College Of Hampton Roads, Old Dominion UniversityMethod and apparatus for intracellular electro-manipulation
    US-2009024195-A1January 22, 2009The Cleveland Clinic FoundationMethod and apparatus for renal neuromodulation
    US-6219577-B1April 17, 2001Global Vascular Concepts, Inc.Iontophoresis, electroporation and combination catheters for local drug delivery to arteries and other body tissues
    US-6400982-B2June 04, 2002Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Cardiac rhythm management system with arrhythmia prediction and prevention
    US-2004193228-A1September 30, 2004Gerber Martin T.Method, system and device for treating various disorders of the pelvic floor by electrical stimulation of the left and right pudendal nerves
    US-5700485-ADecember 23, 1997Children's Medical Center CorporationProlonged nerve blockade by the combination of local anesthetic and glucocorticoid
    US-6006134-ADecember 21, 1999Medtronic, Inc.Method and device for electronically controlling the beating of a heart using venous electrical stimulation of nerve fibers
    US-2003236443-A1December 25, 2003Cespedes Eduardo Ignacio, Michlitsch Kenneth J.Methods and apparatus for the identification and stabilization of vulnerable plaque
    US-2006004417-A1January 05, 2006Cvrx, Inc.Baroreflex activation for arrhythmia treatment
    US-6041252-AMarch 21, 2000Ichor Medical Systems Inc.Drug delivery system and method
    US-2006116720-A1June 01, 2006Penny KnoblichMethod and apparatus for improving renal function
    US-5351394-AOctober 04, 1994Cyberonics, Inc.Method of making a nerve electrode array
    US-5454809-AOctober 03, 1995Angioplasty Systems, Inc.Electrosurgical catheter and method for resolving atherosclerotic plaque by radio frequency sparking
    US-6251130-B1June 26, 2001Innercool Therapies, Inc.Device for applications of selective organ cooling
    US-5137727-AAugust 11, 1992Alza CorporationDelivery device providing beneficial agent stability
    WO-2004026374-A1April 01, 2004Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.Programmable dose control module
    US-5193539-AMarch 16, 1993Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific ResearchImplantable microstimulator
    US-6149620-ANovember 21, 2000Arthrocare CorporationSystem and methods for electrosurgical tissue treatment in the presence of electrically conductive fluid
    US-6073048-AJune 06, 2000Medtronic, Inc.Baroreflex modulation with carotid sinus nerve stimulation for the treatment of heart failure
    US-5803885-ASeptember 08, 1998Tiller; Howard M.Exerciser for rocking a wheelchair
    US-5871449-AFebruary 16, 1999Brown; David LloydDevice and method for locating inflamed plaque in an artery
    US-5906636-AMay 25, 1999Texas Heart InstituteHeat treatment of inflamed tissue
    US-2006235474-A1October 19, 2006Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for multi-vessel renal neuromodulation
    US-5704908-AJanuary 06, 1998Genetronics, Inc.Electroporation and iontophoresis catheter with porous balloon
    US-5560360-AOctober 01, 1996University Of WashingtonImage neurography and diffusion anisotropy imaging
    US-6522926-B1February 18, 2003Cvrx, Inc.Devices and methods for cardiovascular reflex control
    US-5405367-AApril 11, 1995Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific ResearchStructure and method of manufacture of an implantable microstimulator
    US-6735471-B2May 11, 2004Medtronic, Inc.Method and system for endotracheal/esophageal stimulation prior to and during a medical procedure
    US-4071033-AJanuary 31, 1978Nawracaj Edward P, Greit Henry AElectrotherapeutic device with modulated dual signals
    US-5722401-AMarch 03, 1998Cardiac Pathways CorporationEndocardial mapping and/or ablation catheter probe
    US-7063679-B2June 20, 2006Flowmedica, Inc.Intra-aortic renal delivery catheter
    US-6328699-B1December 11, 2001Cedars-Sinai Medical CenterPermanently implantable system and method for detecting, diagnosing and treating congestive heart failure
    WO-2006041847-A1April 20, 2006Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for renal neuromodulation
    US-5478303-ADecember 26, 1995Foley-Nolan; Darragh, Hill; Frederick N.Electromagnetic apparatus for use in therapy
    US-6542781-B1April 01, 2003Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Loop structures for supporting diagnostic and therapeutic elements in contact with body tissue
    US-6442424-B1August 27, 2002Impulse Dynamics N.V.Local cardiac motion control using applied electrical signals
    US-5690691-ANovember 25, 1997The Center For Innovative TechnologyGastro-intestinal pacemaker having phased multi-point stimulation
    US-2010168739-A1July 01, 2010Ardian, Inc.Apparatus, systems, and methods for achieving intravascular, thermally-induced renal neuromodulation
    US-5472406-ADecember 05, 1995The General Hospital CorporationApparatus and method for vasodilation
    WO-2007078997-A2July 12, 2007Ardian, Inc.Procedes et appareil pour une neuromodulation a champ electrique pulse au moyen d’une demarche intravasculaire a extravasculaire
    US-5571150-ANovember 05, 1996Cyberonics, Inc.Treatment of patients in coma by nerve stimulation
    US-7155284-B1December 26, 2006Advanced Bionics CorporationTreatment of hypertension
    US-2005171575-A1August 04, 2005Dev Nagendu B., Dev Sukhendu B., Hofmann Gunter A.Electrically induced vessel vasodilation
    US-2007129761-A1June 07, 2007Ardian, Inc.Methods for treating heart arrhythmia
    US-2007288070-A1December 13, 2007Imad Libbus, C Spinelli Julio, Pastore Joseph M, Kramer Andrew PPhysical conditioning system, device and method
    US-4981146-AJanuary 01, 1991Maven Labs, Inc.Nausea control device
    US-2006085046-A1April 20, 2006Ali Rezai, Mehdi AnsariniaMethods of treating medical conditions by transvascular neuromodulation of the autonomic nervous system
    US-5924997-AJuly 20, 1999Campbell; Thomas HendersonCatheter and method for the thermal mapping of hot spots in vascular lesions of the human body
    US-5628730-AMay 13, 1997Cortrak Medical, Inc.Phoretic balloon catheter with hydrogel coating
    US-5725563-AMarch 10, 1998Klotz; AntoineElectronic device and method for adrenergically stimulating the sympathetic system with respect to the venous media
    US-4026300-AMay 31, 1977Liberty MutualMethod and apparatus for interfacing to nerves
    US-6091995-AJuly 18, 2000Surx, Inc.Devices, methods, and systems for shrinking tissues
    US-2011264011-A1October 27, 2011Ardian, Inc.Multi-directional deflectable catheter apparatuses, systems, and methods for renal neuromodulation
    US-3563246-AFebruary 16, 1971Intelectron CorpMethod and apparatus for improving neural performance in human subjects by electrotherapy
    US-5810802-ASeptember 22, 1998E.P. Technologies, Inc.Systems and methods for controlling tissue ablation using multiple temperature sensing elements
    US-2006167437-A1July 27, 2006Flowmedica, Inc.Method and apparatus for intra aortic substance delivery to a branch vessel
    US-5282785-AFebruary 01, 1994Cortrak Medical, Inc.Drug delivery apparatus and method
    US-5505700-AApril 09, 1996Cordis CorporationElectro-osmotic infusion catheter
    US-6393324-B2May 21, 2002Woodside Biomedical, Inc.Method of blood pressure moderation
    US-6353763-B1March 05, 2002Regenesis Biomedical, Inc.Pulsed electromagnetic energy treatment apparatus and method
    US-6322558-B1November 27, 2001Engineering & Research Associates, Inc.Apparatus and method for predicting ablation depth
    US-6366815-B1April 02, 2002Neurodan A /SImplantable nerve stimulator electrode
    US-5707400-AJanuary 13, 1998Cyberonics, Inc.Treating refractory hypertension by nerve stimulation
    US-6514226-B1February 04, 2003Chf Solutions, Inc.Method and apparatus for treatment of congestive heart failure by improving perfusion of the kidney
    US-6304787-B1October 16, 2001Advanced Bionics CorporationCochlear electrode array having current-focusing and tissue-treating features
    US-3522811-AAugust 04, 1970Medtronic IncImplantable nerve stimulator and method of use
    US-5006119-AApril 09, 1991Engineering & Research Associates, Inc.Hollow core coaxial catheter
    US-5772590-AJune 30, 1998Cordis Webster, Inc.Cardiovascular catheter with laterally stable basket-shaped electrode array with puller wire
    WO-9713463-A1April 17, 1997Transvascular, Inc.Methodes et appareils pour le pontage d'obstructions arterielles, et/ou servant a effectuer d'autres interventions transvasculaires
    US-6254598-B1July 03, 2001Curon Medical, Inc.Sphincter treatment apparatus
    US-4467808-AAugust 28, 1984Biolectron, Inc.Method for preventing and treating osteoporosis in a living body by using electrical stimulation non-invasively
    US-5338662-AAugust 16, 1994Bio-Preserve Medical CorporationOrgan perfusion device
    US-6450942-B1September 17, 2002Cardiorest International Ltd.Method for reducing heart loads in mammals
    WO-9302740-A1February 18, 1993Cyberonics, Inc.Implantable tissue stimulator output stabilization system
    US-5263480-ANovember 23, 1993Cyberonics, Inc.Treatment of eating disorders by nerve stimulation
    EP-2092957-B1January 05, 2011Ardian, Inc.Systèmes de neuromodulation rénale induite thermiquement
    US-6026326-AFebruary 15, 2000Medtronic, Inc.Apparatus and method for treating chronic constipation
    US-3760812-ASeptember 25, 1973Univ MinnesotaImplantable spiral wound stimulation electrodes
    US-5304206-AApril 19, 1994Cyberonics, Inc.Activation techniques for implantable medical device
    US-6972013-B1December 06, 2005Genetronics, Inc.Enhanced delivery of naked DNA to skin by non-invasive in vivo electroporation
    US-6666845-B2December 23, 2003Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.Implantable infusion pump
    US-6571127-B1May 27, 2003Impulse Dynamics N.V.Method of increasing the motility of a GI tract
    US-6245026-B1June 12, 2001Farallon Medsystems, Inc.Thermography catheter
    US-7122019-B1October 17, 2006Flowmedica Inc.Intra-aortic renal drug delivery catheter
    US-5112614-AMay 12, 1992Alza CorporationImplantable delivery dispenser
    WO-2005123183-A3June 08, 2006Richard A Gilbert, William H Hauswirth, Richard Heller, Mark J Jaroszeski, Univ South FloridaDispositif d'electroporation et procede d'introduction d'adn dans les tissus oculaires
    US-6192889-B1February 27, 2001Woodside Biomedical, Inc.Method of suppression and prevention of the gag reflex
    US-5014699-AMay 14, 1991Trustees Of The University Of PennsylvaniaElectromagnetic method and apparatus for healing living tissue
    US-2004010289-A1January 15, 2004Broncus Technologies, Inc.Control system and process for application of energy to airway walls and other mediums
    US-2004220511-A1November 04, 2004Neal Scott, Jerome Segal, Lih-Bin Shih, Burkoth Terry L.Polymer coated device for electrically mediated drug delivery
    WO-2005065284-A3November 17, 2005Univ California, Rafael Davalos, Boris RubinskyTissue ablation with irreversible electroporation
    WO-02053207-A3February 12, 2004Advanced Neuromodulation SysPompe a perfusion implantable
    US-2010222854-A1September 02, 2010Ardian, Inc.Apparatuses for inhibiting renal nerve activity via an intra-to-extravascular approach
    US-6671556-B2December 30, 2003Ivan Osorio, Mark G. FreiVagal nerve stimulation techniques for treatment of epileptic seizures
    US-5618563-AApril 08, 1997Children's Medical Center CorporationBiodegradable polymer matrices for sustained delivery of local anesthetic agents
    US-6939346-B2September 06, 2005Oratec Interventions, Inc.Method and apparatus for controlling a temperature-controlled probe
    US-5125928-AJune 30, 1992Everest Medical CorporationAblation catheter with selectively deployable electrodes
    US-5397338-AMarch 14, 1995Maven Labs, Inc.Electrotherapy device
    US-2003004549-A1January 02, 2003Medtronic, Inc.Method and apparatus to minimize the effects of a cardiac insult
    US-2005245892-A1November 03, 2005Flowmedica, Inc.Apparatus and method for inserting an intra-aorta catheter through a delivery sheath
    US-6749598-B1June 15, 2004Flowmedica, Inc.Apparatus and methods for treating congestive heart disease
    US-3670737-AJune 20, 1972Diapulse Corp Of AmericaUltra-short wave athermapeutic apparatus
    US-5213098-AMay 25, 1993Medtronic, Inc.Post-extrasystolic potentiation stimulation with physiologic sensor feedback
    US-6287608-B1September 11, 2001Intellicardia, Inc.Method and apparatus for treatment of congestive heart failure by improving perfusion of the kidney by infusion of a vasodilator
    US-2005240241-A1October 27, 2005Yun Anthony J, Lee Patrick YTreatment of conditions through modulation of the autonomic nervous system
    US-6036687-AMarch 14, 2000Vnus Medical Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for treating venous insufficiency
    US-5429634-AJuly 04, 1995Pdt SystemsBiogenic implant for drug delivery and method
    US-5800464-ASeptember 01, 1998Medtronic, Inc.System for providing hyperpolarization of cardiac to enhance cardiac function
    WO-2005041748-A3February 23, 2006Minnow Medical Llc, Tom A Steinke, Corbett W Stone, Stephen O Ross, Brian S Kelleher, Raphael M MichelSelectable eccentric remodeling and/or ablation of atherosclerotic material
    US-3650277-AMarch 21, 1972Lkb Medical AbApparatus for influencing the systemic blood pressure in a patient by carotid sinus nerve stimulation
    US-2003220521-A1November 27, 2003G.D. Searle & Co.Renal-selective prodrugs for control of renal sympathetic nerve activity in the treatment of hypertension
    US-2005282284-A1December 22, 2005The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaControlled electroporation and mass transfer across cell membranes in tissue
    US-2005038409-A1February 17, 2005Jerome Segal, Neal ScottMechanical apparatus and method for dilating and delivering a therapeutic agent to a site of treatment
    US-2006106429-A1May 18, 2006Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.System and method for closed-loop neural stimulation
    US-8145317-B2March 27, 2012Ardian, Inc.Methods for renal neuromodulation
    US-7004911-B1February 28, 2006Hosheng Tu, Ho Winston ZOptical thermal mapping for detecting vulnerable plaque
    US-4266533-AMay 12, 1981Electro-Biology, Inc.Modification of the growth, repair and maintenance behavior of living tissues and cells by a specific and selective change in electrical environment
    US-5131409-AJuly 21, 1992Lobarev Valery E, Sitko Sergei P, Ljubchenko Vadim VDevice for microwave resonance therapy
    US-4709698-ADecember 01, 1987Thomas J. FogartyHeatable dilation catheter
    US-6516211-B1February 04, 2003Transurgical, Inc.MRI-guided therapeutic unit and methods
    US-2004254616-A1December 16, 2004Cvrx, Inc.Stimulus regimens for cardiovascular reflex control
    US-6004269-ADecember 21, 1999Boston Scientific CorporationCatheters for imaging, sensing electrical potentials, and ablating tissue
    WO-2007086965-A3December 18, 2008Ardian Inc, Denise Demarais, Nicolas Zadno, Benjamin J Clark, Erik ThaiProcedes et appareils de neuromodulation induite de maniere intravasculaire
    US-6795728-B2September 21, 2004Minnesota Medical Physics, LlcApparatus and method for reducing subcutaneous fat deposits by electroporation
    US-6347247-B1February 12, 2002Genetronics Inc.Electrically induced vessel vasodilation
    US-2130758-ASeptember 20, 1938E J Rose Mfg Company Of CalifoElectrode for diathermy treatment and the like
    WO-2007146834-A2December 21, 2007Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for multi-vessel renal neuromodulation
    WO-2008003058-A3October 30, 2008Ardian Inc, Denise Demarais, Nicolas Zadno, Benjamin J Clark, Erik Thai, Howard R Levin, Mark Gelfand, Andrew Wu, Hanson Gifford, Mark DeemMethods and systems for thermally-induced renal neuromodulation
    US-6190353-B1February 20, 2001Transvascular, Inc.Methods and apparatus for bypassing arterial obstructions and/or performing other transvascular procedures
    WO-9848888-A1November 05, 1998Medtronic, Inc.Techniques de neurostimulation par implantation de deux canaux
    US-4608985-ASeptember 02, 1986Case Western Reserve UniversityAntidromic pulse generating wave form for collision blocking
    US-5019034-AMay 28, 1991Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyControl of transport of molecules across tissue using electroporation
    US-5689877-ANovember 25, 1997Case Western Reserve UniversityMethod of manufacturing an implantable helical spiral cuff electrode
    US-5251634-AOctober 12, 1993Cyberonics, Inc.Helical nerve electrode
    US-5728396-AMarch 17, 1998Alza CorporationSustained delivery of leuprolide using an implantable system
    US-6058331-AMay 02, 2000Medtronic, Inc.Apparatus and method for treating peripheral vascular disease and organ ischemia by electrical stimulation with closed loop feedback control
    US-6536949-B1March 25, 2003Richard R. HeuserCatheter for thermal evaluation of arteriosclerotic plaque
    US-5389069-AFebruary 14, 1995Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyMethod and apparatus for in vivo electroporation of remote cells and tissue
    US-5571147-ANovember 05, 1996Sluijter; Menno E., Cosman; Eric R.Thermal denervation of an intervertebral disc for relief of back pain
    WO-2007121309-A3March 20, 2008Ardian Inc, Denise Demarais, Hanson Gifford, Mark Deem, Howard R Levin, Mark Gelfand, Nicolas ZadnoMethods and apparatus for monopolar renal neuromodulation
    US-2006089674-A1April 27, 2006Walters Richard E, King Alan D, Debruin Katherine AMethod of treating biological materials with translating electrical fields and electrode polarity reversal
    US-5843069-ADecember 01, 1998Gore Hybrid Technologies, Inc.Implantable containment apparatus for a therapeutical device and method for loading and reloading the device therein
    US-6601459-B1August 05, 2003Universitat ZurichMethod of volumetric blood flow measurement
    US-6171306-B1January 09, 2001Ep Technologies, Inc.Systems and methods for forming large lesions in body tissue using curvilinear electrode elements
    US-2005251212-A1November 10, 2005Cvrx, Inc.Stimulus regimens for cardiovascular reflex control
    US-6334069-B1December 25, 2001Regenesis Biomedical, Inc.Pulsed electromagnetic energy treatment apparatus and method
    US-3800802-AApril 02, 1974Int Medical Electronics LtdShort-wave therapy apparatus
    US-3774620-ANovember 27, 1973Nemectron GmbhElectromedicinal apparatus for interference current therapy
    US-2004127942-A1July 01, 2004Yomtov Barry M., Herman Stephen J., Santini John T.Medical device for neural stimulation and controlled drug delivery
    WO-9749453-A1December 31, 1997Sluijter Menno E, Rittman William J Iii, Cosman Eric RMethod and system for neural tissue modification
    US-5919187-AJuly 06, 1999The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaMethod and apparatus for endovascular thermal thrombosis and thermal cancer treatment
    US-5498238-AMarch 12, 1996Cortrak Medical, Inc.Simultaneous angioplasty and phoretic drug delivery
    US-6616624-B1September 09, 2003Cvrx, Inc.Systems and method for controlling renovascular perfusion
    US-4266532-AMay 12, 1981Electro-Biology, Inc.Modification of the growth, repair and maintenance behavior of living tissues and cells by a specific and selective change in electrical environment
    US-5700282-ADecember 23, 1997Zabara; JacobHeart rhythm stabilization using a neurocybernetic prosthesis
    US-6916656-B2July 12, 2005Cyto Pulse Sciences, Inc.Non-linear amplitude dielectrophoresis waveform for cell fusion
    US-5470352-ANovember 28, 1995Northeastern UniversityBalloon angioplasty device
    US-7756583-B2July 13, 2010Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for intravascularly-induced neuromodulation
    WO-2007008954-A3May 10, 2007Ablation Frontiers, Randell L WernethLow power tissue ablation system
    WO-9400188-A1January 06, 1994Cyberonics, Inc.Treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders by nerve stimulation
    WO-2005097256-A3November 23, 2006Cvrx Inc, Martin A Rossing, Robert S Kieval, David J Serdar, Bruce J PerssonRégimes de stimuli pour commande du réflexe cardiovasculaire
    WO-2005014100-A8February 23, 2006Flowmedica Inc, Randy J Kesten, Michael H Rosenthal, Sam G Payne, Andrew K Kramer, Sophia PesotchinskyIntra-aortic renal drug delivery catheter
    US-5019034-B1August 15, 1995Massachusetts Inst TechnologyControl of transport of molecules across tissue using electroporation
    US-5058584-AOctober 22, 1991Medtronic, Inc.Method and apparatus for epidural burst stimulation for angina pectoris
    WO-2006031899-A3December 21, 2006Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Andre Machado, Ali RezaiEnsemble electrode intraluminale
    US-5324255-AJune 28, 1994Baxter International Inc.Angioplasty and ablative devices having onboard ultrasound components and devices and methods for utilizing ultrasound to treat or prevent vasopasm
    US-5589192-ADecember 31, 1996Lintec CorporationGel pharmaceutical formulation for local anesthesia
    US-2005228460-A1October 13, 2005Levin Howard R, Mark GelfandRenal nerve stimulation method and apparatus for treatment of patients
    US-5317155-AMay 31, 1994The Electrogesic CorporationCorona discharge apparatus
    US-2007135875-A1June 14, 2007Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for thermally-induced renal neuromodulation
    US-4774967-AOctober 04, 1988American Biointerface CorporationMethod and apparatus for mammalian nerve regeneration
    US-5792187-AAugust 11, 1998Angeion CorporationNeuro-stimulation to control pain during cardioversion defibrillation
    WO-2004030718-A3August 19, 2004Ricardo Aboytes, Craig A Ball, Jeffrey M Elkins, Flowmedica Inc, Iv Harry B Goodson, Trevor M Greenan, Randy J Kesten, Andrew K Kramer, Samir R Patel, Sam G Payne, Sophia Pesotchinsky, Michael H Rosenthal, Aurelio ValenciaMethod and apparatus for intra aortic substance delivery to a branch vessel
    WO-03076008-A1September 18, 2003Brainsgate Ltd.Technique for blood pressure regulation
    US-6711444-B2March 23, 2004Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Methods of deploying helical diagnostic and therapeutic element supporting structures within the body
    WO-8501213-A1March 28, 1985Jacob ZabaraProthese neurocybernetique
    US-2005065562-A1March 24, 2005Rezai Ali RElectrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve chain
    US-2005154418-A1July 14, 2005Kieval Robert S., Rossing Martin A.Baroreflex activation for pain control, sedation and sleep
    US-2004010303-A1January 15, 2004Cvrx, Inc.Electrode structures and methods for their use in cardiovascular reflex control
    US-7717948-B2May 18, 2010Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for thermally-induced renal neuromodulation
    US-6178349-B1January 23, 2001Medtronic, Inc.Drug delivery neural stimulation device for treatment of cardiovascular disorders
    US-5893885-AApril 13, 1999Cordis Webster, Inc.Multi-electrode ablation catheter
    US-6524607-B1February 25, 2003Euro-Celtique, S.A.Formulations and methods for providing prolonged local anesthesia
    US-5094242-AMarch 10, 1992Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaImplantable nerve stimulation device
    US-5507724-AApril 16, 1996Genetronics, Inc.Electroporation and iontophoresis apparatus and method for insertion of drugs and genes into cells
    US-5626576-AMay 06, 1997Advanced Coronary Intervention, Inc.Electrosurgical catheter for resolving atherosclerotic plaque by radio frequency sparking
    US-6517811-B2February 11, 2003Research Corporation Technologies, Inc.Compounds for cancer imaging and therapy
    WO-2007103879-A3April 24, 2008Ardian Inc, Denise Demarais, Hanson Gifford Iii, Mark Deem, Douglas Sutton, Howard R Levin, Mark GelfandMethods and apparatus for bilateral renal neuromodulation
    US-5861021-AJanuary 19, 1999Urologix IncMicrowave thermal therapy of cardiac tissue
    US-2006212078-A1September 21, 2006Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for treating congestive heart failure
    WO-03022167-A1March 20, 2003Biosense Webster IncMedical device with sensor cooperating with expandable member
    US-5358514-AOctober 25, 1994Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific ResearchImplantable microdevice with self-attaching electrodes
    US-7081114-B2July 25, 2006St. Jude Medical, Atrial Fibrillation Division, Inc.Electrophysiology/ablation catheter having lariat configuration of variable radius
    US-4305115-ADecember 08, 1981Harry H. LeveenElectrostatic shield
    US-2010010567-A1January 14, 2010The Foundry, LlcSystems and methods for neuromodulation for treatment of pain and other disorders associated with nerve conduction
    US-3895639-AJuly 22, 1975Rodler Ing HansApparatus for producing an interference signal at a selected location
    US-6066134-AMay 23, 2000Arthrocare CorporationMethod for electrosurgical cutting and ablation
    WO-9843701-A1October 08, 1998Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research, Advanced BionicsSystem of implantable devices for monitoring and/or affecting body parameters
    WO-9104725-A1April 18, 1991Mezhotraslevoi Nauchno-Inzhenerny Tsentr Po Fizike Zhivogo I Mikrovolnovoi Rezonansnoi Terapii 'vidguk'Dispositif de therapie par resonnance de micro-ondes
    US-5688266-ANovember 18, 1997Ep Technologies, Inc.Electrode and associated systems using thermally insulated temperature sensing elements
    WO-9533514-A1December 14, 1995Magnetic Resonance Therapeutics, Inc.Electro-therapeutic method
    WO-2005110528-A1November 24, 2005Boston Scientific LimitedIntravascular self-anchoring electrode body
    US-8150519-B2April 03, 2012Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for bilateral renal neuromodulation
    US-6600956-B2July 29, 2003Cyberonics, Inc.Circumneural electrode assembly
    US-2006030814-A1February 09, 2006Flowmedica, Inc.Method and apparatus for selective drug infusion via an intra-aortic flow diverter delivery catheter
    US-2006025821-A1February 02, 2006Mark Gelfand, Levin Howard RMethods and devices for renal nerve blocking
    US-5188837-AFebruary 23, 1993Nova Pharmaceutical CorporationLipsopheres for controlled delivery of substances
    US-2010057150-A1March 04, 2010Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for pulsed electric field neuromodulation via an intra-to-extravascular approach
    WO-03082403-A3January 08, 2004Cvrx IncDispositifs et procedes de controle du reflexe cardio-vasculaire par l'intermediaire d'electrodes couplees
    US-3987790-AOctober 26, 1976Alza CorporationOsmotically driven fluid dispenser
    US-5836935-ANovember 17, 1998Ashton; Paul, Patchell; Roy A., Cooper; Jon, Young; Byron A.Implantable refillable controlled release device to deliver drugs directly to an internal portion of the body
    US-4976711-ADecember 11, 1990Everest Medical CorporationAblation catheter with selectively deployable electrodes
    US-3329149-AJuly 04, 1967Dynapower Systems Corp Of CaliSupporting arm for electrotherapeutic treatment head
    US-6786904-B2September 07, 2004Triton Biosystems, Inc.Method and device to treat vulnerable plaque
    US-2006271111-A1November 30, 2006Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for treating contrast nephropathy
    US-6936047-B2August 30, 2005Agility Capital LlcMulti-channel RF energy delivery with coagulum reduction
    US-2006074453-A1April 06, 2006Cvrx, Inc.Baroreflex activation and cardiac resychronization for heart failure treatment
    US-4890623-AJanuary 02, 1990C. R. Bard, Inc.Biopotential sensing device and method for making
    US-2010249773-A1September 30, 2010Ardian, Inc.Handle assemblies for intravascular treatment devices and associated systems and methods
    WO-2006041881-B1May 10, 2007Ardian Inc, Mark Deem, Hanson Gifford Iii, Denise Demarais, Douglas Sutton, Erik Thai, Mark Gelfand, Howard R LevinMethods and apparatus for renal neuromodulation
    US-5860974-AJanuary 19, 1999Boston Scientific CorporationHeart ablation catheter with expandable electrode and method of coupling energy to an electrode on a catheter shaft
    US-5944710-AAugust 31, 1999Genetronics, Inc.Electroporation-mediated intravascular delivery
    US-2010174282-A1July 08, 2010Ardian, Inc.Apparatus for thermal modulation of nerves contributing to renal function
    US-2007265687-A1November 15, 2007Ardian, Inc.Apparatuses for renal neuromodulation
    US-6117101-ASeptember 12, 2000The Regents Of The University Of California, Atrionix, Inc.Circumferential ablation device assembly
    US-5588964-ADecember 31, 1996Cardiac Pathways CorporationSteerable catheter with adjustable bend location and/or radius and method
    US-4865845-ASeptember 12, 1989Alza CorporationRelease rate adjustment of osmotic or diffusional delivery devices
    US-4998532-AMarch 12, 1991Lti Biomedical, Inc.Portable electro-therapy system
    US-2005197624-A1September 08, 2005Flowmedica, Inc.Sheath for use in peripheral interventions
    US-4602624-AJuly 29, 1986Case Western Reserve UniversityImplantable cuff, method of manufacture, and method of installation
    US-6939345-B2September 06, 2005Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Method for reducing restenosis in the presence of an intravascular stent
    US-3894532-AJuly 15, 1975Acupulse IncInstruments for transcutaneous and subcutaneous investigation and treatment
    US-2010168731-A1July 01, 2010Ardian, Inc.Apparatus, systems, and methods for achieving intravascular, thermally-induced renal neuromodulation
    US-2003204161-A1October 30, 2003Bozidar Ferek-PetricImplantable electroporation therapy device and method for using same
    WO-2008061152-A3April 30, 2009Ardian Inc, Denise Demarais, Hanson Gifford, Nicolas Zadno, Mark Deem, Benjamin J Clark, Andrew Wu, Kenneth J MichlitschMethods and apparatus for performing a non-continuous circumferential treatment to a body lumen
    US-2006265014-A1November 23, 2006Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for bilateral renal neuromodulation
    US-2004111080-A1June 10, 2004Microsolutions, Inc.Methods and implantable devices and systems for long term delivery of a pharmaceutical agent
    US-2008004673-A1January 03, 2008Cvrx, Inc.Implantable extravascular electrostimulation system having a resilient cuff
    US-2006167499-A1July 27, 2006Standen LtdTreating a tumor or the like with electric fields at different orientations
    US-6592567-B1July 15, 2003Chf Solutions, Inc.Kidney perfusion catheter
    US-6208894-B1March 27, 2001Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research And Advanced BionicsSystem of implantable devices for monitoring and/or affecting body parameters
    US-5057318-AOctober 15, 1991Alza CorporationDelivery system for beneficial agent over a broad range of rates
    US-8774922-B2July 08, 2014Medtronic Ardian Luxembourg S.A.R.L.Catheter apparatuses having expandable balloons for renal neuromodulation and associated systems and methods
    WO-9736548-A1October 09, 1997Rita Medical Systems, Inc.Appareil de traitement haute frequence
    US-6238702-B1May 29, 2001Children's Medical Center Corp.High load formulations and methods for providing prolonged local anesthesia
    US-5634899-AJune 03, 1997Cortrak Medical, Inc.Simultaneous cardiac pacing and local drug delivery method
    WO-9531142-A1November 23, 1995Applied Medical Resources CorporationSysteme de catheter pour angioplastie et procede de fabrication
    US-6009877-AJanuary 04, 2000Edwards; Stuart D.Method for treating a sphincter
    US-2002087208-A1July 04, 2002Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Devices and methods for creating lesions in endocardial and surrounding tissue to isolate focal arrhythmia substrates
    US-7617005-B2November 10, 2009Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for thermally-induced renal neuromodulation
    US-5193540-AMarch 16, 1993Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific ResearchStructure and method of manufacture of an implantable microstimulator
    US-5300068-AApril 05, 1994St. Jude Medical, Inc.Electrosurgical apparatus
    US-2004065615-A1April 08, 2004Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.Implantable infusion pump
    US-3952751-AApril 27, 1976W. Denis KendallHigh-performance electrotherapeutic apparatus
    US-6600954-B2July 29, 2003Biocontrol Medical Bcm Ltd.Method and apparatus for selective control of nerve fibers
    US-4791931-ADecember 20, 1988Pacesetter Infusion, Ltd.Demand pacemaker using an artificial baroreceptor reflex
    US-6272377-B1August 07, 2001Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Cardiac rhythm management system with arrhythmia prediction and prevention
    US-2004106953-A1June 03, 2004Yomtov Barry M., Herman Stephen J.Medical device for controlled drug delivery and cardiac monitoring and/or stimulation
    US-2007208382-A1September 06, 2007Yun Joonkyoo AMethods and compositions for treating a renal associated condition in a subject
    US-4816016-AMarch 28, 1989Pudenz-Schulte Medical Research Corp.Subcutaneous infusion reservoir and pump system
    US-6449507-B1September 10, 2002Medtronic, Inc.Method and system for nerve stimulation prior to and during a medical procedure
    US-4852573-AAugust 01, 1989Kennedy Philip RImplantable neural electrode
    US-7620451-B2November 17, 2009Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for pulsed electric field neuromodulation via an intra-to-extravascular approach
    US-2004162590-A1August 19, 2004Whitehurst Todd K., Mcgivern James P., Mcclure Kelly H.Fully implantable miniature neurostimulator for intercostal nerve stimulation as a therapy for angina pectoris
    US-2005021092-A1January 27, 2005Yun Anthony Joonkyoo, Lee Patrick Yuarn-BorTreatment of conditions through modulation of the autonomic nervous system
    US-6122548-ASeptember 19, 2000Medtronic, Inc.System and method for preventing cross-conduction in a human-implantable dual channel neurostimulator
    US-3803463-AApril 09, 1974J CoverWeapon for immobilization and capture
    US-3911930-AOctober 14, 1975Stimulation TechMethod and structure of preventing and treating ileus, and reducing acute pain by electrical pulse stimulation
    DE-3151180-A1August 19, 1982Ceske Vysoke Uceni TechHaemodialysestimulator
    US-5299569-AApril 05, 1994Cyberonics, Inc.Treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders by nerve stimulation
    US-5983141-ANovember 09, 1999Radionics, Inc.Method and apparatus for altering neural tissue function
    US-2011137298-A1June 09, 2011St. Jude Medical, Inc.Ultrasound ablation apparatus with discrete staggered ablation zones
    US-6850801-B2February 01, 2005Cvrx, Inc.Mapping methods for cardiovascular reflex control devices
    US-2006121610-A1June 08, 2006The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaControlled electroporation and mass transfer across cell membranes
    US-2002188325-A1December 12, 2002Hill Michael R.S., Jahns Scott E., Keogh James R.Method and system for nerve stimulation prior to and during a medical procedure
    WO-9843700-A9July 15, 1999Mann Alfred E Found Scient ResSystem of implantable devices for monitoring and/or affecting body parameters
    WO-2005084389-A9April 20, 2006Cvrx Inc, Robert S Kieval, Martin A RossingExternal baroreflex activation
    US-2003181963-A1September 25, 2003Pellegrino Richard C., Martin ReynoldsNovel early intervention spinal treatment methods and devices for use therein
    US-6684105-B2January 27, 2004Biocontrol Medical, Ltd.Treatment of disorders by unidirectional nerve stimulation
    US-6669655-B1December 30, 2003Transurgical, Inc.Sonic element and catheter incorporating same
    US-2006036218-A1February 16, 2006Flowmedica, Inc.Method and apparatus for selective material delivery via an intra-renal catheter
    US-6865416-B2March 08, 2005Genetronics, Inc.Electrically induced vessel vasodilation
    US-5234692-AAugust 10, 1993Alza CorporationDelivery device with a protective sleeve
    US-2010137952-A1June 03, 2010Ardian, Inc.Apparatuses for thermally-induced renal neuromodulation
    US-2002065541-A1May 30, 2002Raymond Fredricks, John ShanahanApparatus and method for treatment of an intervertebral disc
    US-6304777-B1October 16, 2001Impulse Dynamics N.V.Induction of cardioplegia applied electrical signals
    US-2003216792-A1November 20, 2003Levin Howard R., Mark GelfandRenal nerve stimulation method and apparatus for treatment of patients
    US-2011264075-A1October 27, 2011Ardian, Inc.Catheter apparatuses, systems, and methods for renal neuromodulation
    US-5439440-AAugust 08, 1995Genetronics, Inc.Electroporation system with voltage control feedback for clinical applications
    US-6534081-B2March 18, 2003Euro-Celtique S.A.Prolonged anesthesia in joints and body spaces
    US-2006135998-A1June 22, 2006Imad Libbus, Kramer Andrew P, Julia MoffittSystem and method for closed-loop neural stimulation
    US-2002183684-A1December 05, 2002GenetronicsElectroporation-enhanced inhibition of vascular neointimal hyperplasia
    US-5334193-AAugust 02, 1994American Cardiac Ablation Co., Inc.Fluid cooled ablation catheter
    US-6405732-B1June 18, 2002Curon Medical, Inc.Method to treat gastric reflux via the detection and ablation of gastro-esophageal nerves and receptors
    US-6146380-ANovember 14, 2000Radionics, Inc.Bent tip electrical surgical probe
    US-6885888-B2April 26, 2005The Cleveland Clinic FoundationElectrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve chain
    WO-2008070413-A2June 12, 2008Ardian, Inc.Procédés de traitement de l'arythmie cardiaque
    WO-9407446-A1April 14, 1994Boston Scientific CorporationDevice and method for heating tissue
    US-6985774-B2January 10, 2006Cvrx, Inc.Stimulus regimens for cardiovascular reflex control
    US-8551069-B2October 08, 2013Medtronic Adrian Luxembourg S.a.r.l.Methods and apparatus for treating contrast nephropathy
    US-2011112400-A1May 12, 2011Ardian, Inc.High intensity focused ultrasound catheter apparatuses, systems, and methods for renal neuromodulation
    WO-02085192-A3May 15, 2003Transurgical IncPerfectionnements des traitements par ablation
    US-2002116030-A1August 22, 2002Rezai Ali R.Electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve chain
    US-2006190044-A1August 24, 2006Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Cell therapy and neural stimulation for cardiac repair
    US-5499971-AMarch 19, 1996Cortrak Medical, Inc.Method for iontophoretically delivering drug adjacent to a heart
    WO-2005032646-A3April 20, 2006Eastern Virginia Med School, Univ Old Dominion, Stephen J Beebe, Karl H SchoenbachApparatus for generating electrical pulses and methods of using the same
    US-4674482-AJune 23, 1987Irt, Inc.Pulse electro-magnetic field therapy device with auto bias circuit
    US-6622041-B2September 16, 2003Cyberonics, Inc.Treatment of congestive heart failure and autonomic cardiovascular drive disorders
    US-2002002329-A1January 03, 2002Boaz AvitallMapping and ablation catheter system
    US-6273886-B1August 14, 2001Curon Medical, Inc.Integrated tissue heating and cooling apparatus
    US-2008319513-A1December 25, 2008Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Neural stimulation with respiratory rhythm management
    US-2002032468-A1March 14, 2002Hill Michael R.S., Jahns Scott E., Keogh James R., Euler David E., Ujhelyi Michael R., Rakow Nancy J., Colson Michael A.Method and system for endotracheal/esophageal stimulation prior to and during a medical procedure
    US-7444183-B2October 28, 2008Enteromedics, Inc.Intraluminal electrode apparatus and method
    WO-0122897-A1April 05, 2001Novasys Medical, Inc.Treatment of tissue by application of energy and drugs
    US-2002183682-A1December 05, 2002Nissim Darvish, Itzhak (Itsik) ShemerDrug delivery device
    US-5251643-AOctober 12, 1993Peter OsypkaMultipolar cardiac pacemaker lead
    US-2004167509-A1August 26, 2004Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Probes having helical and loop shaped inflatable therapeutic elements
    US-5865787-AFebruary 02, 1999Cortrak Medical, Inc.Simultaneous cardiac pacing and local drug delivery
    US-2002139379-A1October 03, 2002Curon Medical, Inc.Method for treating a sphincter
    WO-2005030072-A1April 07, 2005Boston Scientific LimitedDispositif de sonde pour la formation de lesions circonferentielles au sein ou autour d'un ostium
    US-2007282376-A1December 06, 2007Shuros Allan C, Randy Westlund, Caparso Anthony VMethod and apparatus for neural stimulation via the lymphatic system
    US-6356787-B1March 12, 2002Electro Core Techniques, LlcMethod of treating facial blushing by electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve chain
    US-5484400-AJanuary 16, 1996Vidamed, Inc.Dual channel RF delivery system
    US-2005187579-A1August 25, 2005Asthmatx, Inc.Method for treating an asthma attack
    US-6405079-B1June 11, 2002Mehdi M. AnsariniaStimulation method for the dural venous sinuses and adjacent dura for treatment of medical conditions
    US-6024740-AFebruary 15, 2000The Regents Of The University Of California, Atrionix, Inc., Emory UniversityCircumferential ablation device assembly
    US-6086527-AJuly 11, 2000Scimed Life Systems, Inc.System for treating congestive heart failure
    US-6862479-B1March 01, 2005Advanced Bionics CorporationSpinal cord stimulation as a therapy for sexual dysfunction
    US-6738663-B2May 18, 2004Oncostim, A Minnesota CorporationImplantable device and method for the electrical treatment of cancer
    US-6845267-B2January 18, 2005Advanced Bionics CorporationSystems and methods for modulation of circulatory perfusion by electrical and/or drug stimulation
    US-2007173899-A1July 26, 2007Ardian, Inc.Renal nerve stimulation method for treatment of patients
    US-2004243102-A1December 02, 2004Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Guide catheter having selected flexural modulus segments
    US-6718208-B2April 06, 2004Medtronic, Inc.Method and system for nerve stimulation prior to and during a medical procedure
    US-2002040204-A1April 04, 2002Dev Nagendu B., Hofmann Gunter A., Dev Sukhendu B., Rabussay Dietmar P.Electroporation-enhanced inhibition of vascular neointimal hyperplasia
    US-6205361-B1March 20, 2001Advanced Bionics CorporationImplantable expandable multicontact electrodes
    US-6415183-B1July 02, 2002Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Method and apparatus for diaphragmatic pacing
    US-5458626-AOctober 17, 1995Krause; Horst E.Method of electrical nerve stimulation for acceleration of tissue healing
    US-4454883-AJune 19, 1984Therafield Holdings LimitedElectrotherapeutic apparatus
    US-6620151-B2September 16, 2003Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.Non-constant pressure infusion pump
    US-2005049542-A1March 03, 2005Sigg Daniel C., Cross Daisy P., Casas-Bejar Jesus W., Padua Rodolfo A.Electroporation catheter with sensing capabilities
    WO-9604957-A1February 22, 1996Electropharmacology, Inc.Systeme electrotherapeutique
    WO-9837926-A1September 03, 1998Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific ResearchDispositif implantable sur un patient et fonctionnant sur batterie
    US-2276996-AMarch 17, 1942A J GinsbergNon-radio-interfering therapeutic apparatus
    US-7647115-B2January 12, 2010Ardian, Inc.Renal nerve stimulation method and apparatus for treatment of patients
    US-RE35987-EDecember 08, 1998Staodyn, Inc.Output pulse compensation for therapeutic-type electronic devices
    US-2006085054-A1April 20, 2006Zikorus Arthur W, Thompson Russell B, Sander Fiona M, Parker Mark PMethods and apparatus for treatment of hollow anatomical structures
    US-5913876-AJune 22, 1999Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc.Method and apparatus for using vagus nerve stimulation in surgery
    US-2003050635-A1March 13, 2003Csaba Truckai, Shadduck John H., Tass AdorjanEmbolization systems and techniques for treating tumors
    US-6958060-B2October 25, 2005Genetronics, Inc.Method for muscle delivery of drugs, nucleic acids and other compounds
    US-6415187-B1July 02, 2002Advanced Bionics CorporationImplantable, expandable, multicontact electrodes and insertion needle for use therewith
    US-2010268307-A1October 21, 2010Ardian,Inc.Methods for intravascularly-induced neuromodulation
    US-5423744-AJune 13, 1995Gencheff; Nelson, Christensen; Carl W.Catheter system for the deployment of biological material
    US-5234693-AAugust 10, 1993Alza CorporationDelivery device with a protective sleeve
    US-6969388-B2November 29, 2005Vnus Medical Technologies, Inc.Apparatus for applying energy to biological tissue including the use of tumescent tissue compression
    WO-2010078175-A1July 08, 2010Ardian, Inc.Appareils, systèmes et procédés de réalisation d'une neuromodulation rénale intravasculaire induite thermiquement
    WO-2006105121-A2October 05, 2006Minnow Medical, LlcIntraluminal electrical tissue characterization and tuned rf energy for selective treatment of atheroma and other target tissues
    WO-9307803-A1April 29, 1993Cyberonics, Inc.Improved electrode assembly for nerve stimulation
    US-3794022-AFebruary 26, 1974E Nawracaj, H GreitDual oscillator, variable pulse duration electrotherapeutic device
    US-4587975-AMay 13, 1986Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Dimension sensitive angioplasty catheter
    WO-0126729-A1April 19, 2001Cyberonics, Inc.Procede servant a augmenter la croissance capillaire cardiaque chez des patients atteints de defaillance cardiaque
    US-5494822-AFebruary 27, 1996Bio-Preserve Medical CorporationOrgan perfusion device
    US-5269303-ADecember 14, 1993Cyberonics, Inc.Treatment of dementia by nerve stimulation
    US-5747060-AMay 05, 1998Euro-Celtique, S.A.Prolonged local anesthesia with colchicine
    US-6635054-B2October 21, 2003Transurgical, Inc.Thermal treatment methods and apparatus with focused energy application
    US-2005171574-A1August 04, 2005The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaElectroporation to interrupt blood flow
    US-2007066972-A1March 22, 2007Medwaves, Inc.Ablation catheter apparatus with one or more electrodes
    US-5553611-ASeptember 10, 1996Endocardial Solutions, Inc.Endocardial measurement method
    US-5061492-AOctober 29, 1991Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd.Prolonged release microcapsule of a water-soluble drug
    US-7191015-B2March 13, 2007Medtronic Vascular, Inc.Devices and methods for transluminal or transthoracic interstitial electrode placement
    US-2008091255-A1April 17, 2008Cardiac PacemakersImplantable neurostimulator for modulating cardiovascular function
    US-3043310-AJuly 10, 1962Diapulse Mfg Corp Of AmericaTreatment head for athermapeutic apparatus
    US-3181535-AMay 04, 1965Diapulse Mfg Corp Of AmericaAthermapeutic apparatus
    US-6314325-B1November 06, 2001William R. FitzNerve hyperpolarization method and apparatus for pain relief
    WO-2007035537-A2March 29, 2007Ardian, Inc.Procedes et dispositif permettant d'induire une neuromodulation renale regulee
    US-6051017-AApril 18, 2000Advanced Bionics CorporationImplantable microstimulator and systems employing the same
    US-2004215186-A1October 28, 2004Sinus Rhythm Technologies, Inc.Electrical block positioning devices and methods of use therefor
    US-4979511-ADecember 25, 1990Cyberonics, Inc.Strain relief tether for implantable electrode
    US-5569198-AOctober 29, 1996Cortrak Medical Inc.Microporous catheter
    WO-2004107965-A3August 25, 2005Craig A Ball, Jeffrey M Elkins, Flowmedica Inc, Harry B Goodson Iv, Vandana S Mathur, Samir PatelSystemes et procedes destines a realiser des interventions bilaterales ou un diagnostic dans des lumieres du corps ramifiees
    US-2003060848-A1March 27, 2003Kieval Robert S., Perrson Bruce J., Serdar David J., Keith Peter T.Mapping methods for cardiovascular reflex control devices
    US-2004019371-A1January 29, 2004Ali Jaafar, Chornenky Victor I.Apparatus and method for reducing subcutaneous fat deposits, virtual face lift and body sculpturing by electroporation
    US-2002120304-A1August 29, 2002Mest Robert A.Method and system for treatment of tachycardia and fibrillation
    US-8131371-B2March 06, 2012Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for monopolar renal neuromodulation
    US-2006079859-A1April 13, 2006Flowmedica, Inc.Renal infusion systems and methods
    WO-9842403-A1October 01, 1998Intermedics Inc.Cardiac lead for pacing or defibrillating the heart through the coronary sinus
    US-5713847-AFebruary 03, 1998The University Of Iowa Research FoundationHuman drug delivery device for tinnitus
    US-2006095029-A1May 04, 2006Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Ablation probe with flared electrodes
    US-2005080459-A1April 14, 2005Jacobson Jerry I., Scherlag Benjamin J., Yamanashi William S.Cardioelectromagnetic treatment
    US-6473644-B1October 29, 2002Cyberonics, Inc.Method to enhance cardiac capillary growth in heart failure patients
    US-4011861-AMarch 15, 1977Case Western Reserve UniversityImplantable electric terminal for organic tissue
    US-5711326-AJanuary 27, 1998Whirlpool CorporationDishwasher accumulator soil removal grating for a filter system
    US-6010613-AJanuary 04, 2000Cyto Pulse Sciences, Inc.Method of treating materials with pulsed electrical fields
    US-5599345-AFebruary 04, 1997Zomed International, Inc.RF treatment apparatus
    US-6246912-B1June 12, 2001Sherwood Services AgModulated high frequency tissue modification
    US-6058328-AMay 02, 2000Pacesetter, Inc.Implantable stimulation device having means for operating in a preemptive pacing mode to prevent tachyarrhythmias and method thereof
    US-4379462-AApril 12, 1983Neuromed, Inc.Multi-electrode catheter assembly for spinal cord stimulation
    US-2011200171-A1August 18, 2011Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for renal neuromodulation via stereotactic radiotherapy
    WO-9952424-A1October 21, 1999Global Vascular Concepts, Inc.Catheters d'iontophorese, d'electroporation et combines pour la liberation locale de medicament dans des arteres et d'autres tissus de l'organisme
    US-2010137860-A1June 03, 2010Ardian, Inc.Apparatus for performing a non-continuous circumferential treatment of a body lumen
    US-6654636-B1November 25, 2003Genetronics, Inc.Skin and muscle-targeted gene therapy by pulsed electrical field
    US-2011060324-A1March 10, 2011Ardian, Inc.Apparatus, systems, and methods for achieving intravascular, thermally-induced renal neuromodulation
    WO-9600039-A1January 04, 1996Ep Technologies, Inc.Systems and methods for sensing temperature within the body
    WO-2008061150-A2May 22, 2008Ardian, Inc.Méthodes et appareil de neuromodulation ou de dénervation induite par voie intravasculaire
    WO-2007103881-A3December 04, 2008Ardian Inc, Denise Demarais, Hanson Gifford, Mark Deem, Douglas Sutton, Howard R Levin, Mark GelfandMéthodes et appareil pour traiter une insuffisance cardiaque congestive, une hypertension, un infarctus aigu du myocarde, une insuffisance rénale chronique au stade ultime et/ou une néphropathie de contraste
    US-2005075681-A1April 07, 2005Ali Rezai, Ashwini SharanNeural stimulation delivery device with independently moveable delivery structures
    US-2003050681-A1March 13, 2003Pianca Anne M., Morgan Kevin L., Bornzin Gene A., Florio Joseph J., Vachon David J.Self-anchoring coronary sinus lead
    US-2003009145-A1January 09, 2003Struijker-Boudier Harry A.J., Hermans Johannes J.R., Smits Jos F.M., Johnson Randolph M., Felix TheeuwesDelivery of drugs from sustained release devices implanted in myocardial tissue or in the pericardial space
    US-2006149350-A1July 06, 2006Flowmedica, Inc.Systems and methods for performing bi-lateral interventions or diagnosis in branched body lumens
    US-2009062873-A1March 05, 2009Ardian, Inc.Methods and systems for thermally-induced renal neuromodulation
    US-5215086-AJune 01, 1993Cyberonics, Inc.Therapeutic treatment of migraine symptoms by stimulation
    US-6605084-B2August 12, 2003Transurgical, Inc.Apparatus and methods for intrabody thermal treatment
    WO-03082080-A3February 05, 2004Cvrx IncElectrode structures and methods for their use in cardiovascular reflex control
    WO-9933407-A1July 08, 1999Heartport, Inc.Procedes et appareil de perfusion dans une structure tissulaire isolee
    US-2003199747-A1October 23, 2003Michlitsch Kenneth J., Cespedes Eduardo IgnacioMethods and apparatus for the identification and stabilization of vulnerable plaque
    US-5368591-ANovember 29, 1994Prutech Research And Development Partnership IiHeated balloon catheters
    US-5824087-AOctober 20, 1998Aberdeen University And Plasma Biotal LimitedBone regeneration
    US-2002026228-A1February 28, 2002Patrick SchauerteElectrode for intravascular stimulation, cardioversion and/or defibrillation
    WO-0226314-A1April 04, 2002Cvrx, Inc.Dispositifs et procedes de controle reflexe du systeme cardiovasculaire
    US-6413255-B1July 02, 2002Thermage, Inc.Apparatus and method for treatment of tissue
    US-2003074039-A1April 17, 2003Puskas John D.Devices and methods for vagus nerve stimulation
    US-4105017-AAugust 08, 1978Electro-Biology, Inc.Modification of the growth repair and maintenance behavior of living tissue and cells by a specific and selective change in electrical environment
    US-2002169413-A1November 14, 2002Libra Medical Systems, Inc.Apparatus and methods for treating congestive heart disease
    US-2004073238-A1April 15, 2004Transvascular, Inc.Device, system and method for interstitial transvascular intervention
    US-2006069323-A1March 30, 2006Flowmedica, Inc.Systems and methods for bi-lateral guidewire cannulation of branched body lumens
    US-5425364-AJune 20, 1995Cardiac Pathways CorporationFlexible strip assembly without feedthrough holes and device utilizing the same
    US-2002107553-A1August 08, 2002Medtronic, Inc.Method and apparatus for electrically stimulating the nervous system to improve ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, and other cardiac conditions
    WO-9900060-A1January 07, 1999Advanced Coronary InterventionCatheter electrochirurgical servant a traiter des obstructions par ablation haute frequence
    US-2002165532-A1November 07, 2002Cardima, Inc.Helically shaped electrophysiology catheter
    US-2005261672-A1November 24, 2005Mark Deem, Gifford Hanson S, Denise DemaraisSystems and methods for selective denervation of heart dysrhythmias
    US-2004064090-A1April 01, 2004Gad Keren, Ascher Schmulewitz, Benjamin Spenser, Michael Arad, Kesten Randy J., Sophia Pesotchinsky, Rosenthal Michael H., Kramer Andrew W., Payne Sam G.Apparatus and methods for treating congestive heart disease
    US-5755750-AMay 26, 1998University Of FloridaMethod and apparatus for selectively inhibiting activity in nerve fibers
    US-2005010263-A1January 13, 2005Patrick SchauerteNeurostimulation unit for immobilizing the heart during cardiosurgical operations
    US-2005245882-A1November 03, 2005Flowmedica, Inc.Method and apparatus for intra-aortic substance delivery to a branch vessel
    US-2002165586-A1November 07, 2002Medtronic, Inc.Closed-loop neuromodulation for prevention and treatment of cardiac conditions
    US-7083614-B2August 01, 2006Prorhythm, Inc.Thermal treatment methods and apparatus with focused energy application
    US-6869431-B2March 22, 2005Atrionix, Inc.Medical device with sensor cooperating with expandable member
    US-2007156200-A1July 05, 2007Lilian Kornet, Grandjean Pierre ASystem and method for regulating blood pressure and electrolyte balance
    US-2005080409-A1April 14, 2005Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Multi-zone bipolar ablation probe assembly
    US-2004167415-A1August 26, 2004Plc Systems Inc.Method and system for prevention of radiocontrast nephropathy
    US-2004176757-A1September 09, 2004Transurgical, Inc.Cardiac ablation devices
    US-2006067972-A1March 30, 2006Flowmedica, Inc.Devices for renal-based heart failure treatment
    US-6272383-B1August 07, 2001Woodside Biomedical, Inc.Electro-acupuncture method using an electrical stimulator
    US-5916154-AJune 29, 1999Nellcor Puritan BennettMethod of enhancing performance in pulse oximetry via electrical stimulation
    US-6135999-AOctober 24, 2000Oratec Internationals, Inc.Concave probe for arthroscopic surgery
    US-8175711-B2May 08, 2012Ardian, Inc.Methods for treating a condition or disease associated with cardio-renal function
    US-2003045909-A1March 06, 2003Biocontrol Medical Ltd.Selective nerve fiber stimulation for treating heart conditions
    US-6994700-B2February 07, 2006Flowmedica, Inc.Apparatus and method for inserting an intra-aorta catheter through a delivery sheath
    US-7653438-B2January 26, 2010Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for renal neuromodulation
    US-2002026222-A1February 28, 2002Biotronik Mess- Und Therapiegeraete Gmbh & CoDevice for regulating heart rate and heart pumping force
    US-2005153885-A1July 14, 2005Yun Anthony J., Lee Patrick Y.Treatment of conditions through modulation of the autonomic nervous system
    US-2006212076-A1September 21, 2006Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for treating end-stage renal disease
    US-2008213331-A1September 04, 2008Ardian, Inc.Methods and devices for renal nerve blocking
    US-6356786-B1March 12, 2002Electrocore Techniques, LlcMethod of treating palmar hyperhydrosis by electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nervous chain
    WO-9525472-A1September 28, 1995Vidamed, Inc.Systeme de transmission d'energie hf a deux canaux
    US-5807306-ASeptember 15, 1998Cortrak Medical, Inc.Polymer matrix drug delivery apparatus
    US-7054685-B2May 30, 2006Genetronics, Inc.Method and apparatus for reducing electroporation-mediated muscle reaction and pain response
    US-4141365-AFebruary 27, 1979The Johns Hopkins UniversityEpidural lead electrode and insertion needle
    WO-02070039-A8October 30, 2003Three Arch Partners, Richard Y Lin, Gholam Reza Zadno-Azizi, Erica RogersDispositif intravasculaire pour le traitement de l'hypertension
    US-2003158584-A1August 21, 2003Cates Adam W, Goode Paul V, Mazar Scott TChronically-implanted device for sensing and therapy
    US-2007083239-A1April 12, 2007Denise Demarais, Nicolas ZadnoMethods and apparatus for inducing, monitoring and controlling renal neuromodulation
    US-2005267010-A1December 01, 2005Flowmedica, Inc.Bi-lateral local renal delivery for treating congestive heart failure and for BNP therapy
    US-5814079-ASeptember 29, 1998Medtronic, Inc.Cardiac arrhythmia management by application of adnodal stimulation for hyperpolarization of myocardial cells
    US-6488679-B1December 03, 2002Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Systems and methods for controlling power in an electrosurgical probe
    EP-0811395-A2December 10, 1997Quest Medical, Inc.Multiprogrammable tissue stimulator
    WO-03063692-A9November 20, 2003Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ali Rezai, Thomas Macmartin Ii Harman, Ashwini SharanDelivery device for stimulating the sympathetic nerve chain
    US-2007066957-A1March 22, 2007Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for inducing controlled renal neuromodulation
    US-2006004430-A1January 05, 2006Cvrx, Inc.Connection structures for extra-vascular electrode lead body
    US-2002072782-A1June 13, 2002Medtronic, Inc.Vagal nerve stimulation techniques for treatment of epileptic seizures
    US-2004163655-A1August 26, 2004Plc Systems Inc.Method and catheter system applicable to acute renal failure
    US-2007142864-A1June 21, 2007Imad Libbus, Kramer Andrew PAutomatic neural stimulation modulation based on activity
    WO-03028802-A3August 07, 2003Am Discovery Inc, John A Macoviak, David A RahdertMethodes et dispositifs de traitement d'une fibrillation auriculaire
    US-6613045-B1September 02, 2003Vnus Medical Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for treating venous insufficiency
    WO-02070047-A1September 12, 2002Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.Pompe a perfusion a pression non constante
    US-2003199767-A1October 23, 2003Cespedes Eduardo Ignacio, Michlitsch Kenneth J.Methods and apparatus for the identification and stabilization of vulnerable plaque
    US-5286254-AFebruary 15, 1994Cortrak Medical, Inc.Drug delivery apparatus and method
    US-6287304-B1September 11, 2001Neothermia CorporationInterstitial cauterization of tissue volumes with electrosurgically deployed electrodes
    WO-0170114-A1September 27, 2001Rita Medical Systems Inc.Lung treatment apparatus
    US-6978174-B2December 20, 2005Ardian, Inc.Methods and devices for renal nerve blocking
    US-6224592-B1May 01, 2001Arthrocare CorporationSystems and methods for electrosurgical tissue treatment in conductive fluid
    US-2002107515-A1August 08, 2002Curon Medical, Inc.Electrodes for creating lesions in tissue regions at or near a sphincter
    US-2006229677-A1October 12, 2006Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Transvascular neural stimulation device
    US-2009076409-A1March 19, 2009Ardian, Inc.Methods and systems for thermally-induced renal neuromodulation
    US-8150520-B2April 03, 2012Ardian, Inc.Methods for catheter-based renal denervation
    US-6692738-B2February 17, 2004The General Hospital CorporationDelivery of therapeutic biologicals from implantable tissue matrices
    US-6506189-B1January 14, 2003Sherwood Services AgCool-tip electrode thermosurgery system
    US-5540734-AJuly 30, 1996Zabara; JacobCranial nerve stimulation treatments using neurocybernetic prosthesis
    US-3897789-AAugust 05, 1975Stanley J BlanchardAcupuncture apparatus
    US-6599256-B1July 29, 2003Transurgical, Inc.Occlusion of tubular anatomical structures by energy application
    US-6366808-B1April 02, 2002Edward A. Schroeppel, Mark W. KrollImplantable device and method for the electrical treatment of cancer
    US-6269269-B1July 31, 2001Medtronic Inc.Method and apparatus for synchronized treatment of obstructive sleep apnea
    US-5507791-AApril 16, 1996Sit'ko; Sergei P.Microwave resonance therapy
    US-2003125790-A1July 03, 2003Vitaly Fastovsky, Orit Yarden, Yehiel Burstein, Yoseph RozenmanDeployment device, system and method for medical implantation
    US-2006189960-A1August 24, 2006Flowmedica, Inc.Intra-aortic renal drug delivery catheter
    WO-03018108-A3July 31, 2003Cyberonics IncTraitement de l'insuffisance cardiaque congestive et des troubles de la circulation cardio-vasculaire autonome
    US-2006189941-A1August 24, 2006Mercator Medsystems, Inc.Methods and kits for volumetric distribution of pharmaceutical agents via the vascular adventitia and microcirculation
    US-2006155344-A1July 13, 2006Ali Rezai, Harman Ii Thomas M, Ashwini SharanDelivery device for stimulating the sympathetic nerve chain
    US-2003060858-A1March 27, 2003Kieval Robert S., Perrson Bruce J., Serdar David J., Keith Peter T.Stimulus regimens for cardiovascular reflex control
    WO-2006022790-A1March 02, 2006Ardian, Inc.Methods and devices for renal nerve blocking
    US-2003181897-A1September 25, 2003Thomas Simon W.H., Edelstein Peter S., To John T., Nordell Benjamin T.Apparatus and methods for treating female urinary incontinence
    US-2008255642-A1October 16, 2008Ardian, Inc.Methods and systems for thermally-induced renal neuromodulation
    US-2011178570-A1July 21, 2011Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for multi-vessel renal neuromodulation
    US-2004249416-A1December 09, 2004Yun Anthony Joonkyoo, Lee Patrick Yuarn-BorTreatment of conditions through electrical modulation of the autonomic nervous system
    US-2003040774-A1February 27, 2003Terry Reese S., Adkins Robert A., Barrett Burke T.Treatment of congestive heart failure and autonomic cardiovascular drive disorders
    US-2006041283-A1February 23, 2006Mark Gelfand, Levin Howard RImplantable device and method for treatment of hypertension
    US-2002198512-A1December 26, 2002Endobionics, Inc.Electroporation microneedle and methods for its use
    US-2005065574-A1March 24, 2005Ali RezaiMethods of affecting hypothalamic-related conditions
    US-2004082978-A1April 29, 2004Harrison William Vanbrooks, Whitehurst Todd K.Systems and methods for modulation of circulatory perfusion by electrical and/or drug stimulation
    US-5723001-AMarch 03, 1998Electropharmacology, Inc.Apparatus and method for therapeutically treating human body tissue with electromagnetic radiation
    US-2003199768-A1October 23, 2003Cespedes Eduardo Ignacio, Michlitsch Kenneth J.Methods and apparatus for the identification and stabilization of vulnerable plaque
    US-2001044596-A1November 22, 2001Ali JaafarApparatus and method for treatment of vascular restenosis by electroporation
    US-2004243206-A1December 02, 2004Tadlock Charles H.System, method, and combined electrical and chemical stimulation lead for stimulation of a person's nerve tissue
    US-5111815-AMay 12, 1992Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Method and apparatus for cardioverter/pacer utilizing neurosensing
    US-6461314-B1October 08, 2002Transurgical, Inc.Intrabody hifu applicator
    US-7081115-B2July 25, 2006Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.Probes having helical and loop shaped inflatable therapeutic elements
    US-2002177846-A1November 28, 2002Mulier Peter M.J., Filip Mulier, Hoey Michael F.Vaporous delivery of thermal energy to tissue sites
    US-2005240228-A1October 27, 2005Yoram PaltiTreating a tumor or the like with electric fields at different frequencies
    US-6672312-B2January 06, 2004Transurgical, Inc.Pulmonary vein ablation with myocardial tissue locating
    US-6994706-B2February 07, 2006Minnesota Medical Physics, LlcApparatus and method for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia
    US-6464687-B1October 15, 2002Ball Semiconductor, Inc.Implantable drug delivery system
    US-2003100924-A1May 29, 2003Foreman Robert D., Ardell Jeffrey L., Armour John A., Dejongste Michael J.L., Linderoth Bengt G.S.Cardiac neuromodulation and methods of using same
    US-2012130289-A1May 24, 2012Ardian, Inc.Methods for renal neuromodulation
    US-2003199806-A1October 23, 2003Cvrx, Inc.Systems and methods for controlling renovascular perfusion
    WO-9411057-A1May 26, 1994Boaz AvitallCatheter deflection control
    US-2003150464-A1August 14, 2003Casscells S. WardInducing apoptosis of atrial myocytes to treat atrial fibrillation
    US-2004019364-A1January 29, 2004Cvrx, Inc.Devices and methods for cardiovascular reflex control via coupled electrodes
    US-6752805-B2June 22, 2004Atrionix, Inc.Surgical ablation probe for forming a circumferential lesion
    US-2003060857-A1March 27, 2003Perrson Bruce J., Serdar David J., Kieval Robert S., Keith Peter T., Irwin Eric D.Electrode designs and methods of use for cardiovascular reflex control devices
    US-2003233099-A1December 18, 2003Broncus Technologies, Inc.Modification of airways by application of energy
    WO-2004026370-A3September 10, 2004Flowmedica Inc, Mark A Maguire, Richard P GeoffrionIntra-aortic renal delivery catheter
    US-2008039904-A1February 14, 2008Cherik Bulkes, Stephen Denker, Beutler Arthur JIntravascular implant system
    US-2004176699-A1September 09, 2004Volcano Therapeutics, Inc.Thermography catheter with improved wall contact
    US-2010191112-A1July 29, 2010Ardian, Inc.Ultrasound apparatuses for thermally-induced renal neuromodulation
    US-6927049-B2August 09, 2005The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaCell viability detection using electrical measurements
    US-2004101523-A1May 27, 2004G.D. Searle & Co.Renal-selective prodrugs for control of renal smpathetic nerve activity in the treatment of hypertension
    US-2011202098-A1August 18, 2011Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for pulsed electric field neuromodulation via an intra-to-extravascular approach
    US-2003018367-A1January 23, 2003Dilorenzo Daniel JohnMethod and apparatus for neuromodulation and phsyiologic modulation for the treatment of metabolic and neuropsychiatric disease
    US-2006136004-A1June 22, 2006Ebr Systems, Inc.Leadless tissue stimulation systems and methods
    WO-9951286-A1October 14, 1999Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Dispositif servant a traiter l'insuffisance cardiaque globale
    US-2005096710-A1May 05, 2005Cvrx, Inc.Baroreceptor activation for epilepsy control
    US-2007129760-A1June 07, 2007Ardian, Inc.Methods and apparatus for intravasculary-induced neuromodulation or denervation
    US-2003120270-A1June 26, 2003Transurgical, Inc.Ablation therapy
    US-2002038137-A1March 28, 2002Medtronic, Inc.Therapeutic treatment of disorders based on timing information
    US-2005209548-A1September 22, 2005Dev Sukhendu B, Dev Nasendu B, Hofmann Gunter AElectroporation-mediated intravascular delivery
    US-2002045853-A1April 18, 2002Genetronics, Inc.Electroporation-mediated intravascular delivery
    WO-2004026371-A3September 02, 2004Ricardo Aboytes, Craig A Ball, Jeffrey M Elkins, Flowmedica Inc, Harry B Goodson Iv, Trevor M Greenan, Randy J Kesten, Andrew K Kramer, Samir R Patel, Sam G Payne, Sophia Pesotchinsky, Michael H Rosenthal, Aurelio ValenciaProcede et dispositif de perfusion selective de medicament par l'intermediaire d'un catheter intra-aortique a deviation du flux
    US-2006121016-A1June 08, 2006Lee Raphael CMethods and compositions for treatment of free radical injury
    US-2005240173-A1October 27, 2005Yoram PaltiTreating a tumor or the like with an electric field that is focused at a target region
    US-2006100618-A1May 11, 2006Cardima, Inc.System and method for performing ablation and other medical procedures using an electrode array with flex circuit
    WO-9611723-A1April 25, 1996Australasian Medical Technology LimitedMethodes et dispositifs pour la mise en ×uvre d'une therapeutique fondee sur l'application de champ electromagnetique par impulsions
    US-2006041277-A1February 23, 2006Mark Deem, Denise Demarais, Douglas Sutton, Gifford Hanson Iii, Levin Howard R, Mark Gelfand, Clark Benjamin JMethods and apparatus for renal neuromodulation
    US-2006167498-A1July 27, 2006Dilorenzo Daniel JMethod, apparatus, and surgical technique for autonomic neuromodulation for the treatment of disease
    US-2005065573-A1March 24, 2005Rezai Ali R.Electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve chain
    US-2010222851-A1September 02, 2010Ardian, Inc.Methods for monitoring renal neuromodulation
    US-6259952-B1July 10, 2001Radionics, Inc.Method and apparatus for altering neural tissue function
    US-5433739-AJuly 18, 1995Sluijter; Menno E., Cosman; Eric R.Method and apparatus for heating an intervertebral disc for relief of back pain
    US-5282468-AFebruary 01, 1994Medtronic, Inc.Implantable neural electrode
    US-6077227-AJune 20, 2000Medtronic, Inc.Method for manufacture and implant of an implantable blood vessel cuff
    WO-03071140-A3June 10, 2004Yong Huang, Boris Rubinsky, Univ CaliforniaDetection de la viabilite cellulaire a l'aide de mesures electriques
    US-4649936-AMarch 17, 1987Case Western Reserve UniversityAsymmetric single electrode cuff for generation of unidirectionally propagating action potentials for collision blocking
    US-5672174-ASeptember 30, 1997Rita Medical Systems, Inc.Multiple antenna ablation apparatus and method

NO-Patent Citations (100)

    Title
    "2011 Edison Award Winners." Edison Awards: Honoring Innovations & Innovators, 2011, 6 pages, .
    "2012 top 10 advances in heart disease and stroke research: American Heart Association/America Stroke Association Top 10 Research Report." American Heart Association, Dec. 17, 2012, 5 pages, .
    "Ardian(R) Receives 2010 EuroPCR Innovation Award and Demonstrates Further Durability of Renal Denervation Treatment for Hypertension." PR Newswire, Jun. 3, 2010, 2 pages, .
    "Boston Scientific to Acquire Vessix Vascular, Inc.: Company to Strengthen Hypertension Program with Acquisition of Renal Denervation Technology." Boston Scientific: Advancing science for life-Investor Relations, Nov. 8, 2012, 2 pages, .
    "Cleveland Clinic Unveils Top 10 Medical Innovations for 2012: Experts Predict Ten Emerging Technologies that will Shape Health Care Next Year." Cleveland Clinic, Oct. 6, 2011, 2 pages. .
    "Does renal denervation represent a new treatment option for resistant hypertension?" Interventional News, Aug. 3, 2010, 2 pages. .
    "Iberis-Renal Sympathetic Denervation System: Turning innovation into quality care." [Brochure], Terumo Europe N.V., 2013, Europe, 3 pages.
    "Neurotech Reports Announces Winners of Gold Electrode Awards." Neurotech business report, 2009. 1 page. .
    "Quick. Consistent. Controlled. OneShot renal Denervation System" [Brochure], Covidien: positive results for life, 2013, (n.l.), 4 pages.
    "Renal Denervation Technology of Vessix Vascular, Inc. been acquired by Boston Scientific Corporation (BSX) to pay up to $425 Million." Vessix Vascular Pharmaceutical Intelligence: A blog specializing in Pharmaceutical Intelligence and Analytics, Nov. 8, 2012, 21 pages, .
    "The Edison Awards(TM)" Edison Awards: Honoring Innovations & Innovators, 2013, 2 pages, .
    "The Future of Renal denervation for the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension." St. Jude Medical, Inc., 2012, 12 pages.
    "Vessix Renal Denervation System: So Advanced It's Simple." [Brochure], Boston Scientific: Advancing science for life, 2013, 6 pages.
    2003 European Society of Hypertension-European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, Guidelines Committee, Journal of Hypertension 2003, vol. 21, No. 6, pp. 1011-1053.
    Aars, H. and S. Akre, Reflex Changes in Sympathetic Activity and Arterial Blood Pressure Evoked by Afferent Stimulation of the Renal Nerve, Feb. 26, 1999, Acta physiol. Scand., vol. 78, 1970, pp. 184-188.
    Abramov, G.S. et al., Alteration in sensory nerve function following electrical shock, Burns vol. 22, No. 8, 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd., pp. 602-606.
    Achar, Suraj, M.D., and Suriti Kundu, M.D., Principles of Office Anesthesia: Part I. Infiltrative Anesthesia, Office Procedures, American Family Physician, Jul. 1, 2002, vol. 66, No. 1, pp. 91-94.
    Advanced Neuromodulation Systems' Comparison Chart, Dec. 16, 2008, pp. 1.
    Advances in the role of the sympathetic nervous system in cardiovascular medicine, 2001 SNS Report, No. 3, Springer, Published with an educational grant from Servier, pp. 1-8.
    Aggarwal, A. et al., Regional sympathetic effects of low-dose clonidine in heart failure. Hypertension. 2003;41:553-7.
    Agnew, William F. et al., Evolution and Resolution of Stimulation-Induced Axonal Injury in Peripheral Nerve, May 21, 1999, Muscle & Nerve, vol. 22, Oct. 1999, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1999, pp. 1393-1402.
    Ahadian, Farshad M., M.D., Pulsed Radiofrequency Neurotomy: Advances in Pain Medicine, Current Pain and Headache Reports 2004, vol. 8, 2004 Current Science Inc., pp. 34-40.
    Alexander, B.T. et al., Renal denervation abolishes hypertension in low-birth-weight offspring from pregnant rats with reduced uterine perfusion, Hypertension, 2005; 45 (part 2): pp. 754-758.
    Alford, J. Winslow, M.D. and Paul D. Fadale, M.D., Evaluation of Postoperative Bupivacaine Infusion for Pain Management After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, vol. 19, No. 8, Oct. 2003 Arthroscopy Association of North America, pp. 855-861.
    Allen, E.V., Sympathectomy for essential hypertension, Circulation, 1952, 6:131-140.
    Amersham Health. Hypaque-Cysto, 2003, 6 pages.
    Andrews, B.T. et al., The use of surgical sympathectomy in the treatment of chronic renal pain. Br J Urol. 1997; 80: 6-10.
    Asbell, Penny, "Conductive Keratoplasty for the Correction of Hyperopia." Tr Am Ophth Soc, 2001, vol. 99, 10 pages.
    Badoer, Emilio, "Cardiac afferents play the dominant role in renal nerve inhibition elicited by volume expansion in the rabbit." Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, vol. 274, 1998, 7 pages.
    Bengel, Frank, "Serial Assessment of Sympathetic Reinnervation After Orthotopic Heart Transplantation: A longitudinal Study Using PET and C-11 Hydroxyephedrine." Circulation, vol. 99, 1999,7 pages.
    Benito, F., et al. "Radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways in infants." Heart, 78:160-162 (1997).
    Bettmann, Michael, Carotid Stenting and Angioplasty: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Councils on Cardiovascular Radiology, Stroke, Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Epidemiology and Prevention, and Clinical Cardiology, American Heart Association, Circulation, vol. 97, 1998, 4 pages.
    Bohm, Michael et al., "Rationale and design of a large registry on renal denervation: the Global SYMPLICITY registry." EuroIntervention, vol. 9, 2013, 9 pages.
    Brosky, John, "EuroPCR 2013: CE-approved devices line up for renal denervation approval." Medical Device Daily, May 28, 2013, 3 pages, .
    Davis, Mark et al., "Effectiveness of Renal Denervation Therapy for Resistant Hypertension." Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 62, No. 3, 2013, 11 pages.
    Doumas, Michael et al., "Renal Nerve Ablation for Resistant Hypertension: The Dust Has Not Yet Settled." The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2014; vol. 16, No. 6, 2 pages.
    Dubuc, M., et al., "Feasibility of cardiac cryoablation using a transvenous steerable electrode catheter." J Interv Cardiac Electrophysiol, 2:285-292 (1998).
    European Search Report for European Application No. 13159256, Date Mailed: Oct. 17, 2013, 6 pages.
    Final Office Action; U.S. Appl. No. 12/827,700; Mailed on Feb. 5, 2013, 61 pages.
    Geisler, Benjamin et al., "Cost-Effectiveness and Clinical Effectiveness of Catheter-Based Renal Denervation for Resistant Hypertension." Journal of the American College of Cardiology, col. 60, No. 14, 2012, 7 pages.
    Gelfand, M., et al., "Treatment of renal failure and hypertension." U.S. Appl. No. 60/442,970, filed Jan. 29, 2003, 23 pages.
    Gertner, Jon, "Meet the Tech Duo That's Revitalizing the Medical Device Industry." Fast Company, Apr. 15, 2013, 6:00 AM, 17 pages, .
    Golwyn, D. H., Jr., et al. "Percutaneous Transcatheter Renal Ablation with Absolute Ethanol for Uncontrolled Hypertension or Nephrotic Syndrome: Results in 11 Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease." JVIR, 8: 527-533 (1997).
    Hall, W. H., et al. "Combined embolization and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of a solid renal tumor." Am. J. Roentgenol,174: 1592-1594 (2000).
    Han, Y.-M, et al., "Renal artery embolization with diluted hot contrast medium: An experimental study." J Vasc Interv Radiol, 12: 862-868 (2001).
    Hansen, J. M., et al. "The transplanted human kidney does not achieve functional reinnervation." Clin. Sci, 87: 13-19 (1994).
    Hendee, W. R. et al. "Use of Animals in Biomedical Research: The Challenge and Response." American Medical Association White Paper (1988) 39 pages.
    Hering, Dagmara et al., "Chronic kidney disease: role of sympathetic nervous system activation and potential benefits of renal denervation." EuroIntervention, vol. 9, 2013, 9 pages.
    Imimdtanz, "Medtronic awarded industry's highest honor for renal denervation system." The official blog of Medtronic Australasia, Nov. 12, 2012, 2 pages, .
    Kaiser, Chris, AHA Lists Year's Big Advances in CV Research, medpage Today, Dec. 18, 2012, 4 pages, .
    Kompanowska, E., et al., "Early Effects of renal denervation in the anaesthetised rat: Natriuresis and increased cortical blood flow." J Physiol, 531. 2:527-534 (2001).
    Lee, S. J., et al. "Ultrasonic energy in endoscopic surgery." Yonsei Med J, 40:545-549 (1999).
    Linz, Dominik et al., "Renal denervation suppresses ventricular arrhythmias during acute ventricular ischemia in pigs." Heart Rhythm, vol. 0, No. 0, 2013, 6 pages.
    Lustgarten, D. L., et al., "Cryothermal ablation: Mechanism of tissue injury and current experience in the treatment of tachyarrhythmias." Progr Cardiovasc Dis, 41:481-498 (1999).
    Mabin, Tom et al., "First experience with endovascular ultrasound renal denervation for the treatment of resistant hypertension." EuroIntervention, vol. 8, 2012, 5 pages.
    Mahfoud, Felix et al., "Ambulatory Blood Pressure Changes after Renal Sympathetic Denervation in Patients with Resistant Hypertension." Circulation, 2013, 25 pages.
    Mahfoud, Felix et al., "Expert consensus document from the European Society of Cardiology on catheter-based renal denervation." European Heart Journal, 2013, 9 pages.
    Mahfoud, Felix et al., "Renal Hemodynamics and Renal Function After Catheter-Based Renal Sympathetic Denervation in Patients With Resistant Hypertension." Hypertension, 2012, 6 pages.
    Medical-Dictionary.com, Definition of "Animal Model," http://medical-dictionary.com (search "Animal Model"), 2005, 1 page.
    Medtronic, Inc., Annual Report (Form 10-K) (Jun. 28, 2011) 44 pages.
    Messerli, Franz H. et al. "Renal Denervation for Resistant Hypertension: Dead or Alive?" Healio: Cardiology today's Intervention, May/Jun. 2014, 2 pages.
    Millard, F. C., et al, "Renal Embolization for ablation of function in renal failure and hypertension." Postgraduate Medical Journal, 65, 729-734, (1989).
    Miller, Reed, "Finding a Future for Renal Denervation With Better Controlled Trials." Pharma & Medtech Business Intelligence, Article # 01141006003, Oct. 6, 2014, 4 pages.
    Oliveira, V., et al., "Renal denervation normalizes pressure and baroreceptor reflex in high renin hypertension in conscious rats." Hypertension, 19:II-17-II-21 (1992).
    Ong, K. L., et al. "Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension Among United States Adults 1999-2004." Hypertension, 49: 69-75 (2007) (originally published online Dec. 11, 2006).
    Ormiston, John et al., "First-in-human use of the OneShot(TM) renal denervation system from Covidien." EuroIntervention, vol. 8, 2013, 4 pages.
    Ormiston, John et al., "Renal denervation for resistant hypertension using an irrigated radiofrequency balloon: 12-month results from the Renal Hypertension Ablation System (RHAS) trial." EuroIntervention, vol. 9, 2013, 5 pages.
    Page, I.H."The Effect of Renal Denervation on Patients Suffering from Nephritis" J. Clin. Invest.Jul. 1935; 14(4): 443-458.
    Papademetriou, Vasilios et al., "Catheter-Based Renal Denervation for Resistant Hypertension: 12-Month Results of the EnligHTN I First-in-Human Study Using a Multielectrode Ablation System." Hypertension. 2014; 64: 565-572.
    Papademetriou, Vasilios et al., "Renal Nerve Ablation for Resistant Hypertension: How Did We Get Here, Present Status, and Future Directions." Circulation. 2014; 129: 1440-1450.
    Papademetriou, Vasilios, "Renal Denervation and Symplicity HTN-3: "Dubium Sapientiae Initium" (Doubt is the Beginning of Wisdom)", Circulation Research, 2014; 115: 211-214.
    Pedersen, Amanda, "TCT 2012: Renal denervation device makers play show and tell." Medical Device Daily, Oct. 26, 2012, 2 pages, .
    Peet, M., "Hypertension and its Surgical Treatment by bilateral supradiaphragmatic splanchnicectomy" Am J Surgery (1948) pp. 48-68.
    Renal Denervation (RDN), Symplicity RDN System Common Q&A (2011), 4 pages, http://www.medtronic.com/rdn/mediakit/RDN%20FAQ.pdf.
    Schlaich, Markus et al., "Renal Denervation in Human Hypertension: Mechanisms, Current Findings, and Future Prospects." Curr Hypertens Rep, vol. 14, 2012, 7 pages.
    Schmid, Axel et al., "Does Renal Artery Supply Indicate Treatment Success of Renal Denervation." Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol, vol. 36, 2013, 5 pages.
    Schmieder, Roland E. et al., "Updated ESH position paper on interventional therapy of resistant hypertension." EuroIntervention, vol. 9, 2013, 9 pages.
    Sievert, Horst, "Novelty Award EuroPCR 2010." Euro PCR, 2010, 15 pages.
    Stella, A., et al., "Effects of reversible renal denervation on haemodynamic and excretory functions on the ipsilateral and contralateral kidney in the cat." Hypertension, 4:181-188 (1986).
    Stouffer, G. A. et al., "Catheter-based renal denervation in the treatment of resistant hypertension." Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 62, 2013, 6 pages.
    Swartz, J. F., et al., "Radiofrequency endocardial catheter ablation of accessory atrioventricular pathway atrial insertion sites." Circulation, 87: 487-499 (1993).
    U.S. Appl. No. 60/813,589, filed Dec. 29, 2005, Demarais et al.
    U.S. Appl. No. 95/002,110, filed Aug. 29, 2012, Demarais et al.
    U.S. Appl. No. 95/002,209, filed Sep. 13, 2012, Levin et al.
    U.S. Appl. No. 95/002,233, filed Sep. 13, 2012, Levin et al.
    U.S. Appl. No. 95/002,243, filed Sep. 13, 2012, Levin et al.
    U.S. Appl. No. 95/002,253, filed Sep. 13, 2012, Demarais et al.
    U.S. Appl. No. 95/002,255, filed Sep. 13, 2012, Demarais et al.
    U.S. Appl. No. 95/002,292, filed Sep. 14, 2012, Demarais et al.
    U.S. Appl. No. 95/002,327, filed Sep. 14, 2012, Demarais et al.
    U.S. Appl. No. 95/002,335, filed Sep. 14, 2012, Demarais et al.
    U.S. Appl. No. 95/002,336, filed Sep. 14, 2012, Levin et al.
    U.S. Appl. No. 95/002,356, filed Sep. 14, 2012, Demarais et al.
    Uchida, F., et al., "Effect of radiofrequency catheter ablation on parasympathetic denervation: A comparison of three different ablation sites." PACE, 21:2517-2521 (1998).
    Verloop, W. L. et al., "Renal denervation: a new treatment option in resistant arterial hypertension." Neth Heart J., Nov. 30, 2012, 6 pages, .
    Weinstock, M., et al., "Renal denervation prevents sodium retention and hypertension in salt sensitive rabbits with genetic baroreflex impairment." Clinical Science, 90:287-293 (1996).
    Wilcox, Josiah N., Scientific Basis Behind Renal Denervation for the Control of Hypertension, ICI 2012, Dec. 5-6, 2012. 38 pages.
    Worthley, Stephen et al., "Safety and efficacy of a multi-electrode renal sympathetic denervation system in resistant hypertension: the EnligHTN I trial." European Heart Journal, vol. 34, 2013, 9 pages.
    Worthley, Stephen, "The St. Jude Renal Denervation System Technology and Clinical Review." The University of Adelaide Australia, 2012, 24 pages.
    Zuern, Christine S., "Impaired Cardiac Baroflex Sensitivity Predicts Response to Renal Sympathetic Denervation in Patients with Resistant Hypertension." Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.07.046, 24 pages.

Cited By (0)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle