The invention discloses a combined measurement method for organic matter-rich compact rock core gas permeability and diffusion coefficient. The method utilizes a gas pressure attenuation device to accomplish. The device is composed of a rock core holder, a gas storage chamber, a vacuum pump, a confining pressure pump, and a computer. The rock core holder is connected to the vacuum pump and the confining pressure pump respectively, the inlet end of the rock core is connected to the gas storage chamber and a gas source, the outlet end of the rock core is in a closed state, and the device is located in a water-bath heating system. By monitoring the process of the gas in the gas storage chamber flowing to the rock core till balance, a gas pressure attenuation curve can be obtained, then according to a real gas state equation, material balance and the occurrence and flow mechanism of gas in rock, the attenuation curve is divided into a seepage stage and a diffusion stage, thus acquiring the gas permeability and diffusion coefficient. The method provided by the invention simplifies the testing procedure, improves the experimental analysis efficiency, and can provide data support for experimental evaluation of gas mass-transfer ability in shale, coal rock and other unconventional reservoir rocks, gas well productivity prediction and the like.